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Vietnam Military WATCH Issue

 NOTE: THE ONLY DIVE WATCH US MIL CONTRACTS WERE THE CANTEEN AND THE TORNEK. IF SOME ONE CAN PINT ANOTHER I WOULD BE HAPPY TO KNOW. FROM ROLEX TO SEA WOLF, MANY DIVES WERE UTILIZED BY NAVY DIVERS UDT ETC,  HELIO AND JET PILOTS ALSO UTILIZED MANY DIFFERENT WATCHES, BUT ONLY MIL SPEC WATCHES FROM[…]

ROCKS CURRENT OFFERS

  MENU AT BOTTOM CLICK ABOVE [rocks shop] CHECK OUT THE OFFERS ON TWO EBAY SHOPS SEE SOMETHING YOU LIKE? THEN SEND ROCK A TICKET IF YOU ARE A MEMBER YOU WILL RECEIVE A DISCOUNT [jas shop] CLICK BELOW  _______________ FOR DISCOUNTS OF 20% TO 40% IN REAL DOLLARS ON PRODUCTS, JEWELRY, WATCHES AND SERVICES,[…]

FREE ID AND WATCH CHECK

    THIS IS YOUR COMMUNITY! THOUGH GSW/MWB OPERATES AN AWESOME BRICK AND MORTAR STUDIO & GALLERY & 5 WEBSITES ON A DEDICATED SERVER WITH OVER 30,000 PICTURES OF RESTORATIONS, AND HAVE OFFERED OUR SERVICES SINCE 1989 [JOINED THE INTERNET 1992], WE NOT ONLY SELL WE ALSO INVEST IN DOZENS WATCHES FROM FELLOW WATCH SELLERS.[…]

Dial Restoration Is Costly Yet Necessary

TO RESTORE OR NOT RESTORE VINTAGE WATCH DIALS I like to say I am not a watchmaker .. rather a hacking master restoration expert restoring history. With over 35000 pictures, 1.2 mil Google requests every 15 days,+near 10,000 articles online. i am obsessive LOL. Thus I call upon only the best of the best. When[…]

CHRONOGRAPH A RETOUR GEISMAR JAPANESE WWII WATCHES

    GEISMAR JAPANESE WWII WATCHES   ROCK’S PARADISE   VINTAGE & MILITARY WATCHES & FINE JEWELRY   KM & PANZER PARA JAPANESE WWII NAVY SEIKOSHA SUB TIMER RCAF WWII TRENCH TRENCH WYLER GERMAN WWII WWII HELBROS 24HR JAPANESE WWII CHRONO SEIKOSHA CHRONO WWII NAVY SUB TIMER WWII SEIKOSHA JULY 24 2003 WWII-IMPERIAL-JAPAN-SEIKOSHA-SEIKO-LUME-DIAL-MILITARY-WATCH JULY 24[…]

JEWELRY PICTURES MILITARY LADIES EBAY OFFERS

  MENU AT BOTTOM CLICK ABOVE [rocks shop] CHECK OUT THE OFFERS ON TWO EBAY SHOPS SEE SOMETHING YOU LIKE? THEN SEND ROCK A TICKET IF YOU ARE A MEMBER YOU WILL RECEIVE A DISCOUNT [jas shop] CLICK BELOW _______________ FOR DISCOUNTS OF 20% TO 40% IN REAL DOLLARS ON PRODUCTS, JEWELRY, WATCHES AND SERVICES,[…]

EIGENTUM DER FLIEGERTRUPPEN ALPINA INVESTED BY ALPINA

      GSW PO BOX 2301 SUWANEE, GA, USA 30024 goldsmithworks.com 770.831.1257 – 1.800.438.6894 HTTP://FREE.TICKETS.COM Date/Report Number …..120811.LWW Item:  EIGENTUM DER FLIEGERTRUPPEN ALPINA               PURCHASED BY THE ALPINA COMPANY   ALPINA ca. 1915: 182597 WITH MILITARY BLACK DIAL SIGNED EIGENTUM DER FLIEGERTRUPPEN ALPINA WITH 60 MINUTE OUTER TRACK BORDER WHITE[…]

11TH-AIR-BORNE-WWII-VIETNAM

THE ANGELS 11TH AIRBORNE DIVISION WWII 11TH PACIFIC THEATER VIETNAM MID-EAST   GO AND VIEW 300 PHOTOS OF THE 11TH IN WWII THE BEST  MILITARY-WATCH-BOX™ ASSEMBLED     REPRESENTING THE VERY AIRBORNE TROOPERS WHOSE ACTIONS PAVED THE ROAD FOR MANY BANDS OF BROTHERS TO EXIST ***************************************************************** THESE AIRBORNE TROOPERS LIKE A BAND OF FOREST GUMPS[…]

AWESOME-WWII-RESTORATIONS

*********************** NEW MAR 7TH 2013   WE WILL BE POSTING ANOTHER HALD DOZEN OR SO MORE OF DAVID’S INCREDIBLE COLLECTION SENT FOR RESTORATION       NEW JAN 18TH 2013 THESE WERE SHIPPED END OF DECEMBER ROCK IS NOW RESTORING/SERVICING THIS COLLECTION THE FOLLOWING WATCHES ARE FROM ONE PATRON’S [DAVID] COLLECTION WILL UPDATE AS EACH[…]

APPRAISING

BASIC FACTS ABOUT JEWELRY APPRAISAL & INSURANCE REPLACEMENT VALUE APPRAISAL APPRAISAL TO SELL YOUR JEWELRY JEWELRY INSURANCE & CARE INSURANCE COMPANIES REPLACEMENT VALUE APPRAISAL A REPLACEMENT APPRAISAL IS WRITTEN TO COVER THE EXACT AMOUNT THAT YOU PAID FOR THE ITEM. THIS IS NOT AN INFLATED VALUE OF YOUR JEWELRY. THIS ALLOWS FOR AN EXACT PRICE[…]

ROLEX

       

A-WATCH HOW IT OPERATES IN VIDEO

  GOLDSMITHWORKS PO BOX 2301 SUWANEE, GA, USA, 30024 +1.770.831.1257  – 1.800.438.6894 Watch For Sale Need Help ID Value? 35000 WATCH  IMAGES 25000 PAGES ONLINE 24/7 GOLDSMITHWATCHWORKS.COM GOLDSMITHWORKS.COM     MILITARYWATCHBOX.COM LSYF.COM TIMEFRAUD.COM          GOLDSMITHTRAINING.COM  1947 – 1949 WHAT MAKES A FINE WATCH FINE [this video tajke you into the most fabulous era of watch making[…]

OFFERS

OFFERS JUST SAY NO TO EBAY  shop.lsyf.com shop.timefraud.com shop.goldsmithworks.com shop.goldsmithtraining.com shop.militarywatchbox.com shop.goldsmithwatchworks.com shop.vintagetimeremadeinamerica.com watch-and-box-sales   [auction-nudge tool=”listings”]

WORKS

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goldsmithworks and rock restoring seiko dive watch

WHOM DO YOU WANT TO RESTORE YOUR SEIKO WATCHES 1890 T0 1990 ,, Seiko is one of a few rare companies that made everything for their watches. From Cases, Dials, Movements and Tools, TO Oils, Grease, Repair Equipment, Straps, Bands, Bracelets, Crowns, everything was designed, created manufactured in house. SOME PARTS WERE PROBABLY IMPORTED SEIKO[…]

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1940 WWII KOREA VIETNAM WYLER FLOATING BEZEL AIRMAN WATCH

  GOLDSMITHWORKS IN BIZ FOR 30 YEARS ONLINE SINCE 1992 WATCH SALES  REPAIRS RESTORATIONS APPRAISALS TAKE A LOOK AT OUR ONLINE PICTURES 45000 PICTURES IN 452 ALBUMS GOOGLE PICTURE SITE ***************************************** WYLER WYLER-101SR-29MM WWII 11TH AIRBORNE DEPLETED RADIUM DIAL MILITARY INCAFLEX JUMP WATCH 29.3 MM W/O CROWN WITH FREE PROFESSIONAL ONLINE APPRAISAL WITH ALL PICTURES[…]

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WWII 1941 MILITARY DIALED MIDO MULTIFORT BUMPER

*************************************************** RE-ILLUMINATED WITH AF-Luminova ***************************** READY TO WEAR RESTORED & OVERHAULED 1941 WWII MILITARY DIALED MIDO MULTIFORT SUPERAUTOMATIC WITH 17J MIDO 817 BUMPER AND ALL STAINLESS STEEL CASE WITH STAINLESS STEEL WWII SPRING BAND WITH FREE PROFESSIONAL ONLINE APPRAISAL WITH HISTORY AND ASSOCIATED INFORMATION OUTLINED BELOW AND FREE ONE YEAR GSW LIMITED WARRANTY WITH 19.00[…]

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WWII HELIOS 24HR SWEEPS

  RE-ILLUMINATED WITH AF-Luminova ***************************** READY TO WEAR RESTORED & OVERHAULED WWII ERA WITH HACKED SWEEP SECONDS REAPPEARED DURING VIETNAM ERA HELIOS MILITARY DIALED 17J WITH FREE PROFESSIONAL ONLINE APPRAISAL WITH HISTORY AND ASSOCIATED INFORMATION OUTLINED BELOW AND FREE ONE YEAR GSW LIMITED WARRANTY WITH 19.00 US SUBSIDIZED DOUBLE BOXED INSURED WITH SIGNATURE DELIVERY! 26.00[…]

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1968 PX BX RR VIETNAM ERA WYLER MILITARY STYLE DIVE WATCH

  GSW  PICASA WATCH GALLERY GSWW WATCHES *************************************************** READY TO WEAR VINTAGE RESTORED & OVERHAULED EXCELLENT  CONDITION 1968 PX/BX-R&R VIETNAM ERA WYLER MILITARY STYLE DIVE WATCH WITH BALLISTIC NYLON OLIVE DRAB G-18 MILITARY STRAP WITH KEEPERS FITS 6 TO 9 *******************************************  YOU ALSO RECEIVE FREE A ONE YEAR GSW LIMITED WARRANTY FREE APPRAISAL WITH INFO TO[…]

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german wwii military watches

GERMAN-MILITARY-WATCHES.pdf THE QUESTIONS THAT FACE BOTH BUYER AND SELLER OF VINTAGE WWII GERMAN MILITARY WATCHES IS THEIR AUTHENTICATION. I MUST SAY, IF YOU INVEST IN A WATCH THAT IS BLACK DIALED, HAS OLD DEAD RADIUM ILLUMINATED NUMBERS AND HANDS, A SUB SECONDS REGISTER ABOVE THE 6 POSITION, HAS A STEEL OR CHROME CASE WITH WIRED[…]

HISTORIC WEEMS LONGINES BEST

[auction-nudge tool=”listings”] GOLDSMITHWORKS HAS BEEN ONLINE TRADING & RESTORING WATCHES SINCE 1992 SINCE JOINING EBAY TEN YEARS AGO WE- HAVE POSTED OVER 150,000 PERMANENT  IMAGES PLUS HISTORIES OF ALL OF OUR RESTORATIONS PICASA -PHOTO BUCKET -GOOGLE   WE MAINTAIN 13 WEBSITES PROVIDING OUR PATRONS WITH FREE DETAILED   INFORMATION, HISTORY/CLEAR PICS ON WATCHES RESTORED THE LAST[…]

DOES THE CASE HAVE TO BE CUSHION NO THE PERSHING

BEFORE A FORUM DODO BIRD SWEEPS IN TO “HELP” BY INFORMING US  IT AIN’T SO…. ALLOW ME TO INFORM YOU OF THE HISTORY OF THE 48 STAR AMERICAN SHEILD W/EAGLE AND PORCELAINE DIAL.   AN ELGIN POCKET WATCH -WITH PERSHING DIAL-   AFTER RESTORING OVER 200 PERSHING DIALED WATCHES, WE CONCLUDED THAT, THOUGH ELGIN PRODUCED[…]

WWII NAZI LUFTWAFFE HACKING SWEEP SECONDS ALPINA

THE RAREST WWII GERMAN WATCH A SMALL RUN OF THESE POCKET WATCHES WERE MADE IN GERMANY BY ALPINA   HONORING   HITLER.–\FEW SURVIVED  FEWER STILL ACTUALLR RUN DUE TO PARTS THIS ALPINA WAS/IS NOT SIMPLY A FASHION OR HONOR WATCH THE FACT THIS ALPINA HAS A MILITARY  HACKED SWEEP SECONDS HAND AND THIS RARE MILITARY GRADE[…]

WALTHAM GENUINE TRENCH

WALTHAM GENUINE TRENCH MILITARY ILLUMINATED 24HR VERSION WITH CRYSTAL GUARD RED 12, RED 24HR CHAPTER ORIGINAL HANDS INCLUDING FITTING  TAILED SUB SECONDS HAND OUTLINED  ILLUMINATED RAILROAD NUMERALS LIKE KITCHENER MILITARY STRAPS ONE TONGUE IS LONGER THE ONE THAT IS TO RIGHT/ABOVE WHEN WEARING ON LEFT ARM, THIS ALLOWED THE SOLDIER TO PLACE OVER CUFF, JACKET[…]

VIETNAM ERA RED CROSS HELIOS CUFF STLE

FACT. GOLDSMITHWORKS HAS BEEN ONLINE TRADING & RESTORING WATCHES SINCE 1992 SINCE JOINING EBAY TEN YEARS AGO, WE HAVE OFFERED OUR VINTAGE TIME EXCLUSIVELY ONLINE WITH EB WE HAVE ALSO POSTED OVER 150,000 IMAGES OF OUR RESTORATIONS PICASA -PHOTO BUCKET -GOOGLE FREE WARRANTY AND APPRAISAL VERIFYING THE AUTHENTICITY OF OUR TIME PIECES 13 WEBSITES PROVIDING[…]

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CASA BLANCA BUCHERER FREE FRENCH NURSE

   CASA BLANCA BUCHERER FREE FRENCH NURSE AVAILABLE ON ETSY WITH FREE SHIPPING TODAY WORLD WIDE   CASA BLANCA BUCHERER FREE FRENCH NURSE THIS PIECE IS READY TO WEAR EVERY DAY TIME PIECE NOTE. CASABLANCA THE MOVIE I RECENTLY WATCHED THE MOVIE AND HIJACKED SOME FRAMES. WOW, PLUM FULL OF FREE FRENCH MATERIAL. IMPORTANT THEME[…]

German_WWII

GERMAN-MILITARY-WATCHES.pdf   GERMAN WWII ARMY SWEEP SECONDS INTELLIGENCE WATCH **************************************** BELOW IS PHOTO OF GENUINE DI-H ABOVE WAS POSTED ONLINE AS IS *************************************** I HAVE HAD ONLY TWO OF THESE IN 20 YEARS THE GERMAN MILITARY PROPERTY MARK”DI SERIAL H” WAS UTILIZED FOR THE ARMY INTELLIGENCE SERVICE MORE GERMAN WWII WATCH HISTORY BELOW ALL WATCHES[…]

military_issue_watch_or_not_1

  <WE HAVE HAD ONLY 3 NEGATIVE & 2 NEUTRAL FEED BACKS IN 10 YEARS WITH 2500 TRANSACTIONS!!!!!!!! AND NO NEGATIVE/NEUTRAL FOR THE 8000 PRIVATE TRANSACTIONS < CHECK THIS FEED BACK!!!! TELL ME WHAT STORE EVER HAD THAT TYPE OF RECORD WHILE SELLING USED WATCHES OR USED CARS OR ANYTHING USED, OLD AND MECHANICAL–REGARDLESS OF[…]

military_issue_watch_or_not_2

    FACTS CONCERNING MILITARY VS PRIVATE WWI THROUGH VIETNAM http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_1/ ACTUAL DIRECT WWII WATCHES RESTORED BY ROCK/GSW http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_2/ ACTUAL WWI/WWII JAPAN/GERMAN/SWISS WATCHES RESTORED BY ROCK/GSW http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_3/ ACTUAL WWII/VIETNAM/SWISS/US/RESTORED BY ROCK/GSW http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_4/   ALL TIME PIECES RESTORED BY GOLDSMITHWORKS all watches restored by GOLDSMITHWORKS  GOLDSMITHWORKS USED TO INVEST IN 60 TO 70% OF OUR BASE[…]

military_issue_watch_or_not_4

      FACTS CONCERNING MILITARY VS PRIVATE WWI THROUGH VIETNAM http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_1/ ACTUAL DIRECT WWII WATCHES RESTORED BY ROCK/GSW http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_2/ WWI/WWII JAPAN/GERMAN/SWISS WATCHES  BY ROCK/GSW http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_3/ ACTUAL WWII/VIETNAM/SWISS/US/RESTORED BY ROCK/GSW http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_4/   MARCH 01,2015 CLICK BELOW FOR DAVID’S VINTAGE RESTORED DIRECT TO PUBLIC/SOLDIER MILITARY WATCHES NOT ALL OF THESE ARE MILITARY, BUT THE MAJORITY ARE[…]

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OnePatronFiftyWWII-Restorations

      OCT 30TH 2014   MARCH 01,2015 CLICK BELOW FOR DAVID’S VINTAGE RESTORED MILITARY WATCHES PDF! ROCK IS NOW RESTORING/SERVICING THIS COLLECTION THE FOLLOWING WATCHES ARE FROM ONE PATRON’S [DAVID] COLLECTION WILL UPDATE AS EACH TIME PIECE OF THIS INCREDIBLE EDUCATION PDF STORED POCKET TRENCH CONVERSIONS VIETNAM US GOV ISSUE WATCHES GERMAN SUBMARINE[…]

World War One

 

 

 

 

 for the rest of the story go http://militarywatchbox.com

WORLD WAR ONE


WWI – WW1 – WORLD WAR ONE

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redhanddivision3.gif (7461 bytes) The American “Red Hand” Division Flag
When General Black Jack Pershing arrived in France in 1918,, he separated the “Black” Regiments, including the New York City, National Guard Unit called the Black Rattlers. He provided them to French General Mariano Goybet who commanded the French 157th division which consisted of the French 333rd infantry regiment. The 371st Infantry, a part of the 92nd Division was attached to the 157th to bring the unit to full strength and, it was said,  to fulfill a promise made to France from the long ago debt of the Revolutionary War. , Both the American 371st and 372 regiments would be  part of the French Generals division, yet remain as independant fighting units.This created the   now famous Fighting “Red Hand” Division and would propel the Black Rattlers to the WORLD FAMOUS name of the HARLEM HELL FIGHTERS. A name given these blasck american soldiers be the Germans due to the ferosity that the Black American soldiers fought with

The first battle flag used by the 157th was the field flag of General Goybet. who was authorized a personal field flag which would be Red, White, and Red. , General Goybet added the red hand to the white field to remember the soldiers that had died and to remind the remaining soldiers that there was a blood debt owed, a vengeance if you will, to the Germans for the death of those soldier. The General’s flag was changed again. Two small American flags (one on each side) to the red stripes closest to the staff, symbolizing the addition of the American unit to the command.Historically, the 372nd was one of the oldest African-American units in the country dating back to the Civil War with a lineage including the Monumental City Guards and the First Separate Company. Though out the World War I these two African-American regiments fought bravely. They were the longest front line serving  American soldiers and were the first American soldiers who fought all the way to the Rhine. These men were awarded the Croix de Guerre, and several of their men received both the French Legion of Honor and the American Distinguished Service Cross. Freddie Stowers of the 371st was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor, our nation’s highest military award for bravery.

 

 

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 World War I (WWI), which was called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter,[4] was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It involved all the world’s great powers, which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (centred around the Triple Entente) and the Central Powers (originally centred around the Triple Alliance). More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history More than 9 million combatants were killed, largely because of great technological advances in firepower without corresponding advances in mobility. It was the sixth deadliest conflict in world history.

The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was the proximate trigger of the war. Long-term causes, such as imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe, such as the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, France, and Italy, played a major role. Ferdinand’s assassination by a Yugoslav nationalist resulted in a Habsburg ultimatum against the Kingdom of Serbia. Several alliances formed over the past decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; via their colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world.

On 28 July, the conflict opened with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia, followed by the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France; and a Russian attack against Germany. After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt, the Western Front settled into a static battle of attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917. In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back by the German army. Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916. The Russian Empire collapsed in 1917, and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, United States forces entered the trenches and the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensives. Germany agreed to a cease-fire on 11 November 1918, later known as Armistice Day.

By the war’s end, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires—had been militarily and politically defeated and had ceased to exist. The former two states lost a great amount of territory, while the latter two were dismantled entirely. The map of central Europe was redrawn into several smaller states. The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war and the breakup of empires, the repercussions of Germany’s defeat and problems with the Treaty of Versailles are generally agreed to be factors in the beginning of World War II.

Before World War II, the war was also known as The Great War, The World War, or The War in Europe. In France and Belgium, it was sometimes referred to as La Guerre du Droit (the War for Justice) or La Guerre Pour la Civilisation / de Oorlog tot de Beschaving (the War to Preserve Civilisation), especially on medals and commemorative monuments. The term used by official histories of the war in Britain and Canada is First World War, while American histories generally use the term World War I.

The earliest known use of the term First World War appeared in September 1914 when German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel said, “there is no doubt that the course and character of the feared ‘European War’” … will become the first world war in the full sense of the word.”

The terms World War I and First World War both became standard (in the United States and Britain respectively) beginning in about 1940 to 1942; before that, it was most commonly called The Great War.

In the 19th Century, the major European powers had gone to great lengths to maintain a balance of power throughout Europe, resulting by 1900 in a complex network of political and military alliances throughout the continent. These had started in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria. Then, in October 1873, German Chancellor Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors (German: Dreikaiserbund) between the monarchs of Austria–Hungary, Russia and Germany. This agreement failed because Austria–Hungary and Russia could not agree over Balkan policy, leaving Germany and Austria–Hungary in an alliance formed in 1879, called the Dual Alliance. This was seen as a method of countering Russian influence in the Balkans as the Ottoman Empire continued to weaken. In 1882, this alliance was expanded to include Italy in what became the Triple Alliance.

After 1870, European conflict was averted largely through a carefully planned network of treaties between the German Empire and the remainder of Europe orchestrated by Chancellor Bismarck. He especially worked to hold Russia at Germany’s side to avoid a two-front war with France and Russia. When Wilhelm II ascended to the throne as German Emperor (Kaiser), Bismarck’s alliances were gradually de-emphasised. For example, the Kaiser refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1890. Two years later, the Franco-Russian Alliance was signed to counteract the force of the Triple Alliance. In 1904, the United Kingdom sealed an alliance with France, the Entente cordiale and in 1907, the United Kingdom and Russia signed the Anglo-Russian Convention. This system of interlocking bilateral agreements formed the Triple Entente.
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HMS Dreadnought. A naval arms race existed between the United Kingdom and Germany.

German industrial and economic power had grown greatly after unification and the foundation of the Empire in 1870. From the mid-1890s on, the government of Wilhelm II used this base to devote significant economic resources to building up the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy), established by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, in rivalry with the British Royal Navy for world naval supremacy. As a result, both nations strove to out-build each other in terms of capital ships. With the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906, the British Empire expanded on its significant advantage over its German rivals. The arms race between Britain and Germany eventually extended to the rest of Europe, with all the major powers devoting their industrial base to producing the equipment and weapons necessary for a pan-European conflict. Between 1908 and 1913, the military spending of the European powers increased by 50 percent.
Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian-Serb student, was arrested immediately after he assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Austria-Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of 1908–1909 by officially annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which it had occupied since 1878. This angered the Kingdom of Serbia and its patron, the Pan-Slavic and Orthodox Russian Empire. Russian political manoeuvring in the region destabilised peace accords that were already fracturing in what was known as “the Powder keg of Europe”.
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910

In 1912 and 1913, the First Balkan War was fought between the Balkan League and the fracturing Ottoman Empire. The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian State while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. When Bulgaria attacked both Serbia and Greece on 16 June 1913, it lost most of Macedonia to Serbia and Greece and Southern Dobruja to Romania in the 33-day Second Balkan War, further destabilising the region.

On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian-Serb student and member of Young Bosnia, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, Bosnia. This began a period of diplomatic manoeuvring among Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France, and Britain called the July Crisis. Wanting to finally end Serbian interference in Bosnia, Austria-Hungary delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia, a series of ten demands intentionally made unacceptable, intending to provoke a war with Serbia. When Serbia agreed to only eight of the ten demands, Austria-Hungary declared war on 28 July 1914. Strachan argues, “Whether an equivocal and early response by Serbia would have made any difference to Austria-Hungary’s behaviour must be doubtful. Franz Ferdinand was not the sort of personality who commanded popularity, and his demise did not cast the empire into deepest mourning”.

The Russian Empire, unwilling to allow Austria–Hungary to eliminate its influence in the Balkans, and in support of its longtime Serb protégés, ordered a partial mobilisation one day later. When the German Empire began to mobilise on 30 July 1914, France, angry about the German conquest of Alsace-Lorraine during the Franco-Prussian War, ordered French mobilisation on 1 August. Germany declared war on Russia on the same day. The United Kingdom declared war on Germany, on 4 August 1914, following an “unsatisfactory reply” to the British ultimatum that Belgium must be kept neutral.

The United States originally pursued a policy of non-intervention, avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace. When a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania in 1915, with 128 Americans aboard, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed, “America is too proud to fight” and demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships. Germany complied. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. He repeatedly warned the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law and U.S. ideas of human rights. Wilson was under pressure from former president Theodore Roosevelt, who denounced German acts as “piracy”. Wilson’s desire to have a seat at negotiations at war’s end to advance the League of Nations also played a role. Wilson’s Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, whose opinions had been ignored, resigned as he could no longer support the president’s policy. Public opinion was angered at suspected German sabotage of Black Tom in Jersey City, New Jersey, and the Kingsland Explosion.

In January 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. The German Foreign minister, in the Zimmermann Telegram, told Mexico that U.S. entry was likely once unrestricted submarine warfare began, and invited Mexico to join the war as Germany’s ally against the United States. In return, the Germans would send Mexico money and help it recover the territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona that Mexico lost during the Mexican-American War 70 years earlier. Wilson released the Zimmerman note to the public and Americans saw it as a casus belli—a cause for war.
President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917.
U.S. declaration of war on Germany
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Woodrow Wilson declares war on Germany

After the sinking of seven U.S. merchant ships by submarines and the publication of the Zimmerman telegram, Wilson called for war on Germany, which the U.S. Congress declared on 6 April 1917.

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