PURCHASED BY THE ALPINA
WATCH COMPANY FOR THEIR MUSEUM
Description of item:
EIGENTUM DER FLIEGERTRUPPEN
60 MINUTE OUTER TRACK BORDER
WHITE ARABIC NUMERALS EVERY 5 MINUTES
WHITE ARABIC NUMERALS 1-11
MILITARY/ALPINA LOGO AT 12
STEEL BREGUET HANDS
THREE PIECE WATCH CASE
CONDITION FINE TO MINT
|Reports are supplied at the request of the customer and it is for the customer’s exclusive use. Reports express an opinion of the time of the examination of the jewelry. This report is for customers use only for the following two purposes, indicating estimated retail replacement value to obtain insurance coverage, or for the purpose of providing geological information. goldsmith Works does not guarantee that the appraisal valuation will result in a sale at the price. Estimated retail replacement value is arrived after analyses of what the approximate high retail cash asking price is for labor, materials, and design. These prices may be substantially higher than actual transaction or warranty with regards to any item described in the report, since jewelry grading is not an exact science, this report represent the best opinion of the company. GoldSmith Works is in no case responsible for differences that occur by repeated grading by other experts in the field and/or use of other standards, norms, methods or criteria other than those used by GoldSmith Works. GoldSmith Works is expressly held harmless by customers including, but with out limitation for any claims or actions that may arise out of negligence in connection with the preparation of this laboratory report, or actions based upon the customer’s use of the report. The information on the carat weight, clarity grade, color grade on the report is approximate due to the limitations in jewelry grading. The item was tested, graded, and examined under 10x magnification using the techniques and equipment available to GoldSmith Works, including fully corrected triplet loupe, binocular microscope, master color comparison guides, diamond color comparison tools, electronic carat balance, non-contact optical measuring device, and ancillary instruments necessary at the time of Exam|
1883 and German Watchmaker Gottlieb Hauser
The Union Horlogère (UH) or Vereinigte Uhrmacher Alpina (VUA) was founded by Gottlieb Hauser1883 as an association of leading manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers to unify the purchase and distribution of watch and clock parts.
Soon genuine calibres were designed, and manufactured by the Alpina *Ebauche Factory of Duret & Colonnaz in Geneva.
* Ébauche: an incomplete watch movement which sold sets of loose parts, comprising the main plate, bridges, train, regulator, winding and setting mechanism without the timing system, escapement and the mainspring.
Alpina Glashütte 1909-1922
In order also to participate in the German watch-manufacturing base, Alpina Union Horlogère founded the “Präcisions-Uhrenfabrik Alpina” in Glashütte in 1909.
The Union’s factories were now located in Geneva, Bienne, Besançon and Glashütte
and by 1913 the Alpina Chronometer Glashütte equipped with an Alpina chronometer ebauche with Glashütte escapement instead of the typical Swiss anchor escapement dialed the 21” marine watch was purchased by the German navy at the time.
During the First World War, major capital flow restrictions and import/export restrictions restricted cused problems for Alpina.
Finally in 1917, towards the end of the war, the Association “Union Horlogère” was dissolved.
Two separate anonymous societies were incorporated: the Union Horlogère SA in Bienne, Switzerland and theAlpina DeutscheUhrmacher-Genossenschaft G.m.b.H. in Berlin, Germany.
The representatives of Union Horlogère sold high quality watches primarily under the Alpina brand.
Each watchmaker, manufacturer or specialized shop that wanted to become a member had to apply.
Membership allowed each representative to benefit from the purchase of Alpina watches.
Each member was guaranteed to be the only Alpina representative in his or her town with the exception if the town was large enough to support more than one representative.
The Association fixed retail prices. Advertising was entirely paid the Association from its common funds coming from subscriptions, entry fees and subsidies calculated on suppliers’ turnover.
The Alpina Gruen Gilde 1929-1937
In 1929 the American brand Gruen merged with Alpina forming “Alpina Gruen Gilde SA”, the largest community of interests that ever existed in the horological field.
The quality of Alpina and Gruen watches improved.
Models such as the “Doctor’s Watch” produced by the Aegler factory — Rolex later bought the Aegler factory– and was distributed under the names of Alpina, Gruen, Alpina-Gruen and Rolex (“Prince”).
But the merger was of short duration. Gruen restricted Alpina access to its USA members and attempted to sell watches higher priced than Alpina, the two brands separated in 1937 and Alpina Union Horlogère SA continued alone.
Alpina’s best sellers
In 1933, Alpina presented its first “sports-watch”, the “Blockuhr” in steel- patented a new type of crown (Brevet 1464).- the “Alpina 4” in 1938 1) anti magnetic, 2) waterproof 3) Incabloc anti-shock system, 4) stainless steel.
The Second World War
While the Union Horlogère had separated in three legally independent companies during the First World War, relationships were again under intense scrutiny during World War II.
Import and capital flow restrictions as well as travel problems suppressed many of its activities.
Eventually, the Allied Forces pressed the Swiss Alpina Union Horlogère to drop usage of the Alpina name in Germany.
The German association then adopted the name Dugena (Deutsche Uhremacher-Genossenschaft Alpina), which became their new trademark
“Mussolini bei Fliegertruppen”
-Mussolini with flier troops-
24 December 1925 – 25 July 1943
WWI: 1915 -1918 -German Fliegertruppen
GERMAN AERIAL DETACHMENTS WWI:
Pre-Luftwaffe” was called the Luftstreitkräfte and very early in the war as Die Fliegertruppen deutschen Kaiserreiches
(The flier troops [OF] the German empire)
WWI : P.u.W.: (POLISH)
Prüfanstalt und Werft der Fliegertruppen – The Test Institute and Workshops of the flying troops) CREATED BOMBS TO DROP FROM GERMAN AIRCRAFT
WWI: Eigentum Der Fliegertruppen = Property of the flier troops/flying corps somwtimes ” FLZ ” the mark of the Prussian air corps in WWI
und Luftfahrt (aviation)
P.u.W. (Prüfanstalt und Werft der Fliegertruppen
– The Test Institute and Workshops of the flying troops)
WWII: THE SWISS AIR FORCE
(Swiss Standard German is used in writing) .
The German Empire (German: Deutsches Reich, called by some German historians as Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich or Kaiserreich) refers to Germany from the unification of Germany and proclamation of William I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871 to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of William II (28 November 1918). Deutsches Reich remained the official name of Germany throughout the Weimar period and most of the Nazi period until 1943, when it was changed to Gro?deutsches Reich (“Great German Empire”).
In 1914, Germany was the most powerful industrial nation in Europe, The Deutsche Luftstreitkr?fte (“German Air Force”), known before October 1916 as Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches (“Imperial German Flying Corps”),or simply Die Fliegertruppen, was the air arm of the Imperial German Army during World War I (1914–1918). In English language sources it is usually referred to as the “Imperial German Air Service”, although that is not a literal translation of either name. German naval aviators remained an integral part of the Kaiserliche Marine. Both the army and navy operated conventional aircraft, balloons and Zeppelins.
The first military aircraft to be acquired by the German Army entered service in 1910 – forming the nucleus of what was to become the Luftstreitkr?fte in October 1916. The duties of such aircraft were initially intended to be reconnaissance and artillery spotting in support of armies on the ground, just as balloons had been used during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 and even as far back as the Napoleonic Wars. For comparison, France’s embryonic army air service (Aviation Militaire), which eventually became the Arm?e de l’Air, was instituted later in 1910 – the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers (later re-organised as the Royal Flying Corps) was not formed until November 1911
The Jagdstaffeln, or hunting squadrons, established by the reorganization were fielded by four kingdoms of the German Empire. The Kingdom of Prussia was predominant, with a force eventually comprising 67 Jastas. However, the Kingdoms of Bavaria, Saxony, and W?rttemburg had their own fighter squadrons; Bavaria had ten, Saxony seven, and W?rttemburg four.
On 24 June 1917, the Luftstreitkr?fte formed its first fighter wing, Royal Prussian Jagdgeschwader I, incorporating Jastas 4, 6, 10, and 11, and set the pattern for using Roman numerals in the Luftstreitkr?fte for designating such units. Manfred von Richthofen was moved up from command of Jasta 11 to command JG I. After his death in action, it would renamed for him by order of the Kaiser.
The Prussians would follow up by establishing three more Jagdgeschwaders. On 2 February 1918, JG II formed from Jastas 12, 13, 15, and 19, and placed Adolf Ritter von Tutschek in command. On the same day, JG III consolidated Jasta 2 Boelcke, and Jastas 26, 27, and 36 under Bruno Loerzer. Finally, on 2 September 1918, the Royal Prussian Marine Jagdgeschwader was formed from Marine Feld Jastas I through V, and placed in charge of Gotthard Sachsenberg.
Bavaria also established their own Royal Bavarian Jagdgeschwader IV on 3 October 1918. It consisted of Jastas 23, 32, 34, and 35 under Eduard Ritter von Schleich.
Initially all German and Austro-Hungarian military aircraft in service used the Iron Cross insignia. By the end of the war, the German Army Air Service possessed a total of 2,709 frontline aircraft, 56 airships, 186 balloon detachments and about 4,500 flying personnel.
After the First World War, the Air Clauses of the Versailles Treaty of 1919, were intended to end military aviation in Germany and to prevent the resurrection of the German Flying Corps. The Allied Control Commission oversaw the demobilization of the Air Corps and the destruction of over 15,000 aircraft and 27,000 aero engines. A weakness in the Treaty of Versailles was the less strict restrictions against Germany possessing and manufacturing civil aircraft. Later, the Paris Air Agreement of 1926 removed all limitations on civilian aircraft manufacturing and commercial aviation. The Germans immediately expanded civil and commercial aviation establishing the foundations for a new air force.
General Hans von Seeckt, Chief of the Army Command at the Defence Ministry, 1920, was convinced that military aviation was the key to restoring Germany’s military power. He secretly selected a small group of regular officers from the army to oversee aviation concerns for the Ministry. This small group of officers consisted of future Luftwaffe notables such as Helmuth Felmy, Hugo Sperrle, Walter Wever, Albert Kesselring and Hans J?rgen Stumpff. As early as 1923, von Seeckt issued a memorandum arguing the need for an independent German air force.
Gen von Seeckt made astute political moves to ensure that the military could control the development of civilian aviation which would support a reborn Luftwaffe. In 1924 he secretly trained military pilots in civilian schools and managed to have a previous German Flying Corps officer, Captain Brandenburg, appointed as the head of the Civil Aviation Department.
The Paris Air Agreement of 1926 provided the veil behind which to secretly build up the German air force. 1926 saw the birth of Deutsche Lufthansa with future Luftwaffe field marshal Erhard Milch as chairman of the corporation. Lufthansa, with generous government subsidies, played an important part in building infrastructure, training personnel, and developing aircraft industry for the future Luftwaffe. Lufthansa, in a short period, would become the most technologically advanced and experienced airline in Europe.
The origins of the Luftwaffe were born just months after A H came to power.
Hermann Goring, a World War I ace with 22 victories and the holder of the Orden Pour le Merite, became National Commissar for aviation with former Lufthansa employee Erhard Milch as his deputy.
In April 1933 the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM – Reich Air Ministry) was established.
The RLM was in charge of development and production of aircraft. Hermann G?ring. G?ring was commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe until April 1945.
Design of Aircraft
The German Luftwaffe was one of the strongest, most doctrinally advanced, and most battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II started in Europe in September 1939.
Officially unveiled in 1935, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles, its purpose was to support AH’s “Blitzkrieg” across Europe.
The aircraft that were to serve in the Luftwaffe were of a new age and technically superior to that of most other nations in the 1930s.
Types like the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka and Messerschmitt Bf 109 came to symbolize German air power.
The absence of Goring in planning and production matters was fortunate.
Goring had little knowledge of current aviation, had last flown in 1922, and had not kept himself informed of latest events.
Goring also displayed a lack of understanding of doctrine and technical issues in aerial warfare which he left to the more competent.
The Commander-in-Chief left the organization and building of the Luftwaffe, after 1936, to Erhard Milch.
However Goring, as a part of Hitler’s inner circle, was to provide enormous financial materials for rearming and equipping the Luftwaffe.
Ernst Udet. Along with Kesselring, Udet (WW1 ACE) was responsible for establishing the design trend of German aircraft.
Udet’s focus was on tactical army support air forces.