THIS BOX HAS BEEN ON LINE A WHILE IN DIFFERENT FORMS. COLLECTORS KEEP INVESTING INITEMS I PLACE WITHIN THE BOX! BUT I WOULD EXPECT THAT NOT MANY OF YOU HAVE READ

' "THE RISING SUN"
THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE JAPANESE EMPIRE" '

SO THE ROCK WILL INCLUDE A COPY W/THIS BOX

JHGFF.jpg (6523 bytes)
NOT the COPY THAt SHIPS
NOTE THE COPY I BELIEVE IS AN OLD ORIGINAL. HAVE TO FIND IT
SO PIC IS NOT THE PIC OF THE BOOK. WILL TRY TO UPLOAD AS SOON AS POSSIBLE

******************************************

WELL I COMBINED THE TARAWA OR SOUTH PACIFIC WWII US/JAPAN WWII BOX WITH THE BRITISH LEND LEASE A-8 NAVIGATION TIMER ALONG WITH THE MASSIVE US/BRITISH    MAJOR AIR FORCE FLEET IN THE PACIFIC DURING WWII. JUST READ HOW MANY CARRIERS THEY HAD. WOW. A GREATADDITION TO THE TARAWA BOX.

********************************************

IAMG_69.JPG (23238 bytes)

BEFORE - I WILL ADD THE AFTER SOON 16/2015
____________________________________________________________________________

 

 
uuuuurrrled.png (166191 bytes)

VITRIA-PNG.png (9920 bytes)
The Rise Of Japan
1905 - 1945

imperial-33.jpg (4949 bytes) Imperial_Seal_of_Japan_svg.png (45820 bytes) japan-merchanyt.gif (1790 bytes)
Imperial Army Imperial Seal Seal & Flag  Imperial Flag

 


AIMG_3958.JPG (181515 bytes)

I AM RE ADJUSTING THE BOX NEW PICS COMING

 

1905-japanese-command.jpg (95229 bytes)
Japanese General Kuroki and his staff, including
foreign officers and war correspondents 1904

Portrait_of_Masatake_Terauchi.jpg (19878 bytes)
Terauchi Masatake
Prime Minister of Japan
1916-1918

wpe77.jpg (16956 bytes)

A Japanese propaganda poster for the Tripartite Pact:
"Good friends in three countries".
(left AdOolf HiItler, center Fumimaro Konoe, right Benito Mussolini)

On September 22, 1940, taking advantage of France's defeat that summer, Japanese troops occupied French Indochina. Five days later, the Japanese signed the Tripartite Pact effectively forming an alliance with Germany and Italy and within 14 months would launch a devestating preemptive strike against the USA in Hawaii.

AHHA.jpg (58241 bytes)

TARAWA
GONE WITH THE WIND OF THE CORE
2 MILES BY 800 YARDS

a-8-jitterbug.gif (875838 bytes)

 

TARAWA WAS TRULY THE VERY FIRST BATTLE BETWEEN THE USA AND THE JAPANESE IN THE PACIFIC THAT HAD ALSO HAD THE WAYSAND MEANS THAT WOULD BE UTILIZED UNTIL JAPAN WASDEFEATED. FROM AMPHIBIOUS LANDINGS TO ISLAND HOPPING, AIRCRAFTCARRIERS AND SEA BATTLES AND ALL OF THE ABOVE

South-Pacific-WWII-Photographer-Memorabilia-Flight-Cap-Goggles-Japanese-Canteen

OUR OFFER INCLUDES THE NAVY/MARINE CORPS MILITARY/INTELLIGENCE   PHOTOGRAPHERS SUMMERHELMET, AN EARLY SET OF  GOGGLES WITH SWAT GATHERS,   A USA MILITARY ISSUE ELGIN JITTER BUG 10 SEC NAVIGATION  TIMER, SIGNED WITH US MIL A-8 MIL AND  LEND LEASE  BRITISH SIGNED  [NOTE THE INFO ON THE BRITISHP PACIFIC FLEET OF US SUPPLIED CARRIERS AND SUCH UNDER US COMMAND, THERE ACTION INCLUDED SUPPORT OF THE US FORCES INCLUDING AGAINST SUICIDE FLYERS, INVASION FORCES, LANDING FORCES. AND MORE. ALSO IS AN EARLY PACIFIC ISSUE  JAPANESE CANTEEN, AND PICTURES...... HAVE FUN.. OF, AND A HARD BACK COPY OF THE FALLL

IMG_0725.JPG (120616 bytes) IMG_0728.JPG (146521 bytes)

IMG_0727.JPG (137057 bytes)

IMG_0726.JPG (130606 bytes)

IMG_0731.JPG (142452 bytes)

PICTURES OF WILLIS
#1 AND OTHER
TARAWA NAVY
PILOT/COMBAT
PHOTOGRAPHER

 IMG_4244.JPG (184453 bytes)

THIS WONDERFUL FLIGHT HELMET IS IN EXCELLENT CONDITION AND INCLUDES
PERFECT EAR PADS AN

IMG_4241.JPG (192847 bytes)
LEATHER STAYS & SNAPS ARE IN D LEATHER SN

IMG_4242.JPG (148672 bytes)
OVER ALL ABSOLUTELY  FINE TO MINT CONDITION

IMG_4238.JPG (171421 bytes)
HEADPHONE EAR MATERIAL
AND CHIN WRAP ARE IN NEAR MINT CONDITION

IMG_4237.JPG (194611 bytes)
AP STRAPS AND PAD

 

IMG_4247.JPG (192340 bytes)
THE BOX WAS CUT TO ALLOW THE EAR COVERS TO FIT.

IMG_4358.JPG (162917 bytes)
THEN COVERED

IMG_3925.JPG (247053 bytes)

Untitled.jpg (24616 bytes)

LENSES CLOTH METAL ARE
EXCELLENT CONDITION

IMG_4248.JPG (167986 bytes) IMG_4253.JPG (123697 bytes)
IMG_4252.JPG (127301 bytes)

 

IMG_4254.JPG (124047 bytes)

 

ELGIN-TIMER-ADD.jpg (142801 bytes)

 Grade 582 1/30-second timer used by the US Army-Airforce and known as Watch Navigation (Ground Speed) Type A-8.

One of its most important uses of the A-8    was for navigation. Air speed indicators on WWII aircraft were controlled by air being forced into the air speed indicator as you flew your plane. The problem was that as you gained altitude less and less air entered the device and there was always a wind blowing and your speed relative to the ground is going to be either lower or higher depending on whether you are flying into the wind or with the wind.

To make corrections and get  your actual speed relative to the ground you needed to do some arithmetic. You had to figure your actual ground-speed and compare it to the airspeed indicator and then adjust your navigation calculations accordingly. The pilot or navigator would pick out, say, a pair of known parallel roads or other landmarks about 5 to 10 miles apart early in your flight and the measure the distance between them using the scale on a map, they would then click this 10 second timer on and then off as they    flew from one to the other. Some basic [for those that were trained] calculations and division and they had their actual ground speed.

IMG_4304.JPG (129996 bytes)

IMG_4298.JPG (93656 bytes)

WITH LEG STRAP OR WITH A FOB

ELGIN
A-8
"JITTERBUG"

MILITARY AVIATION TIMER
WITH
15 JEWEL
[ONE OF THE MOST JEWELED TIMERS EVER MADE]
BLACK MILITARY WHEELED
10 SEC TIMER MOVEMENT
AND
WWII  HEAVY CANVAS AND LEATHER
LEG OR THIGH STRAP

WITH
FACTORY REMOVABLE STABILIZER
BRITISH AVIATION MILITARY
Spectemur Agendo
BUTTON

NICK NAMED
“THE JITTERBUG”

FREE ONE YEAR GSW LIMITED WARRANTY

FREE APPRAISAL WITH INFO TO INSURE ONLINE
CONTAINING ALL PICS & HISTORY

RESTORED TO NEAR MINT. USAA ELGIN A-8 LEND LEASE NAVIGATION TIMER WITH FIELD MADE LEND STRAP MADE OF MILITARY CANVAS AND LEATHER DETAILS ON CASE BACK SLIGHTLY WORN. BRITISH PATTERN CODE LIKE NEW. ELGIN SIGNED DIAL MOVEMENT. SPECIAL 15 JEWEL -MOST TIMERS HAD MAX 7 JEWELS- MOVEMENT RESTORED & OVERHAULED. DIAL 95%. IWC CASE SOME WEAR, LEG STRAP WWII OLIVE DRAB HEAVY THICK WEAVE CANVAS. .

The British Pacific Fleet (BPF) was a Royal Navy formation which saw action against Japan during the Second World War. The fleet was composed of British Commonwealth naval vessels. Its main base was at Sydney, Australia, with a forward base at Manus Island. One of the largest fleets ever assembled by the Royal Navy, by VJ Day it had four battleships and six fleet aircraft carriers, fifteen smaller aircraft carriers, eleven cruisers, and numerous smaller warships, submarines, and support vessels.

GSW-WILL-PROFESSIONALY-APPRAISE-YOUR-VINTAGE-WATCH
NOTE LEG STRAP TIMER WWII

IMG_3775.JPG (146972 bytes)
ELGIN W/LEG STRAP

IMG_3790.JPG (118602 bytes)

WHERE MOST MILITARY TIMERS HAD 7 JEWELS MAX AND WERE UNADJUSTED, THE ELGIN "JITTERBUG" A-8 PILOT/NAVIGATOR TIMER HAD A 15 JEWEL, ADJUSTED,  10 SECOND MOVEMENT.  THE ENERGY AND SPEED OF THE BALANCE WAS SO INTENSE, AND THE SOUND IT MADE SO LOUD, THAT IT GARNERED IT'S HISTORIC NAME - THE "JITTERBUG"

BUT WHAT TRULY MADE IT MAKE THAT SOUND WAS THAT IT DID NOT EVER STOP THE BALANCE. THE ONLY WAY TO STOP THE BALANCE ONCE IT STARTED WAS TO LET IT RUN ITS COURSE UNTIL THE MAIN WOUND DOWN.

IMG_3742.JPG (148606 bytes)

THE REASON WAS THE BALANCE IS SO SMALL AND IT OPERATES SO FAST THAT IT WOULD BREAK THE STAFF.
NOTE THE TINY BALANCE! YOU HARDLY SEE IT UNDER THE BRIDGE COCK. SEE THE ADJUSTER? THEN THE GOLD JEWEL RETAINER WITH DUAL HOLD DOWN SCREWS? BELOW IS THE JITTERBUG BALANCE. IT SINGLY FLIES BACK AND FORTH SO FAST THE TIMING IS JUSTLY PRECISE. ONE OF THE MOST PRECISE TIMERS THE WORLD HAS EVER WITNESSED BEFORE THE ADVENT OF QUARTZ.



IMG_3759.JPG (118645 bytes)

WR-3467
BRITISH USE

TYPE A-8
SPEC. NO 94-27749
SER NO. AF-44 12681
MFRS PART, NO. 1778
CONT. WII-107-AC-580
ELGIN 

 IMG_3738.JPG (100774 bytes)

YOU CAN SEE THAT THIS JITTERBUG WAS UTILIZED EXTENSIVELY BY THE FACT THE SIGNING ON THE CASE BACK IS NO WORN AWAY IT TOOK 18 PICS TO GET ONE YOU COULD READ.

IMG_3751.JPG (106617 bytes)
NOTE:  THE ELGIN A-8 HAS ELGIN ON THE DIAL

IMG_3779.JPG (189579 bytes)

THE FACT IS, THE JITTERBUG WAS USED ON SUBS AND FOR MANY OTHER TIMING EVENTS, YET IT'S PRIMARY PURPOSE WAS PROVIDING GROUND SPEED FOR AIRPLANE NAVIGATION AS WELL AS FOR THE  BOMBARDIER . WITH OUT PERFECT GROUND SPEED FIGURES, ONCE A PLANE WAS ON ITS WAY,  PRECISE NAVIGATE TO TARGETS OR DESTINATIONS REQUIRED IT. ALSO UNTIL THE BOMB SCOPE IT WAS A GREAT TOOL DUE TO ITS 10 SECONDS ROTATION.

IMG_3757.JPG (87407 bytes)

THIS  JITTERBUG IS A TRUE U.S.A. ELGIN A-8 PROVIDED TO US AND BRITISH MILITARY AIR CORPS.  IT IS STAMPED  ON THE CASE BACK WITH US AND BRITISH WWII  PATTERN & DEPLOYMENT NUMBERS. THIS A-8   SURVIVED WWII AND OPERATES LIKE IT DID WHEN FIRST RECEIVED.

IMG_3739.JPG (119312 bytes)

NOTE THAT THIS IS ONE OF THE ONLY SUPER HI-BEAT TIMERS
AND ONLY ONE OF  THAT HAS 15 JEWELS

BLACK RATCHET CLICK AND CROWN WHEELS
WERE FEATURES OF ELGIN MILITARY WATCHES

IMG_3785.JPG (164565 bytes) IMG_3786.JPG (175875 bytes)
IMG_3782.JPG (122265 bytes) IMG_3784.JPG (156234 bytes)

IMG_3759.JPG (118645 bytes)

IMG_3773.JPG (135685 bytes)

THIS AMERICAN / BRITISH AVIATION JITTERBUG A-8
ELGIN 10SEC TIMER HAS A DOUBLE HINGED
CASE MADE BY THE INTERNATIONAL WATCH CASE CO.

NOTE
THE HEAVY THICK CLOTH STRAPHAS USE STAINS BUT THEY ARE LIGHT ND RIGHT
WITHOUT THEM THIS WOULD NOT BEE WHAT IT IS SO NO HEAVY CLEANERS

IMG_2980.JPG (132835 bytes)
NOT PART OF OFFER AND NOT 4 SALE PLACED TO DEMONSTRATE OTHER WWII TIMER LEG STYLES

THOUGH THIS IS ONLY THE SECOND A-8 TIMER    LEG TIE DOWN STRAP
WE EVER HAD, ABOVE IS ANOTHER TIMER WE RESTORED
WITH A SI9MILAR STRAP, THOUGH THIS ONE IS A LEATHER TIE DOWN

IMG_3732.JPG (77691 bytes)

WR-3467
[ BRITISH PATTERN/MILITARY ID ]

IMG_3778.JPG (161521 bytes)

LEG STRAP
THIS LEG STRAP IS HIGHLY UNUSUAL, THE OUTER CASE STOP WITH REVERSE LUG CAN BE PLACED ON ANY A-9 JITTERBUG TIMER. IT ACTUALLY WAS MADE TO SLIDE OVER JUST ABOUT ANY SIZE LEG OR EVEN THE LAYERS OF CLOTHING UTILIZED BY PILOTS NAVIGATORS AND BOMBARDIERS WHO FLEW LONG MISSIONS AT HIGH ALTITUDES. THE LEATHER     MATCHES THE STAYS AND IS STILL TIGHT. ONE CAN LIFT THE A-8 JITTERBUG   AT AN ANGLE..

******************************************

1869.jpg (16959 bytes)

Let us be judged by our acts.

AN ORIGINAL BRITISH LEATHER FOB WITH BRITISH Spectemur Agendo BUTTON AND A UNIQUE ROUND BUTTON RIVET WAS ADDED AS IT WAS  UTILIZED ON A BRITISH POCKET OR TIMER IN WWII.

1ST-DRAGOONS-WATERLOO.gif (29456 bytes)
1ST DRAGOONS WATERLOO

The United Kingdom first adopted the Spectemur Agendo motto for the:

Royal Dragoons (1st Dragoons) Regiment of the British Army.
The Royal Dragoons (1st Dragoons) were formed in 1661 as a British Army Mounted Infantry Regiment
RAF Benson [WWII]
148 (Barnsley) Squadron WWII

************************************************************

IMG_3771.JPG (153344 bytes)

CONDITION IS FINE. WORKS AS IT SHOULD. NOTE THE SIGNED Spectemur Agendo BUTTON. IT FITS THROUGH THE HEAVY CANVAS STRAP AND A CLIP HOLDS IT IN. VERY PROFESSIONAL AND SOLID.

IMG_3774.JPG (142753 bytes)

SEE THEIR WAS THIS AGED US BADGE  ON THE STRAP.

IMG_3769.JPG (156045 bytes)

ROCK ADDED THE BRITISH BUTTON HE REMOVED FROM THE BRITISH FOB.
THIS JITTERBUG AND BOTH THE U.S. AND  JUST HAD TO BE PAIRED WITH THIS JITTERBUG.

IMG_3779.JPG (189579 bytes)

PLENTY OF ROOM. ONE CAN WALK WITH IT TIED DOWN.

 

148-WWII-Spectemur-Agendo.jpg (41803 bytes)

CANTEEN

IMG_4147.JPG (25382 bytes)
IMG_3965.JPG (25737 bytes)
IMG_3964.JPG (23041 bytes)

TARAWA

IMG_4341.JPG (151672 bytes)

I WILL SELECT 7 TO 10 PICS FOR THIS BOX. THE PICTURES ARE FROM NEGATIVE GIVEN TO DENICE AND
I WHOM ALLEGED TO HAVE HAD HER FATHER AND FATHER IN LAW SERVE AS NAVY PHOTOGRAPHERS
DURING WWII AND HER HIUSBAND SERVE BORTH IN KOREA AND IN VIETNAM AS A PHOTOGRAPHER.
WHEN HER HUBAND PASSED IN 2011, SHE LIOCKED HER GHOME DOWN. A YEAR PASSED BEFORE
SHE RETURNED. SHE STOPPED IAT OUR STUDIO AND REQUEST THAT WE PERFORM AN APPRAISAL OF SOME WWII ITEMS AT HER HOME NEEDLEESS TO SAY, PACKED IN BOXES. PLASTIC BINBS, SUITCASES, CUSTOM GLASS CASES ...


EVERYTHING FROM GUNS TO A COMPLETE COLLECTION OF WWII CAMERA, INCLUDING THE GIANT BOX TYPE ONE CAN VIEW IN SCENES OF BOAT PLANES WITH 2 TO 5 NAVY MILITARY POTOGRAPHERS HANGING FOR DEAR LIFE HOLDING THESE GIANT BOX CAMERAS...... SHOIOTING THE BATTLES, THE INTELLIGENCE PICS/.....OVER THE CORAL SEA BATTLES, MIDWAY , OKINAWA, THE PHILIPPINES OVER ENEMY SHIPS AS THEY BLASTED AWAY OR LAUNCHED PLANES .....

IT WAS HER FATHER AND FATHER IN LAW WHOM DARED THOSE WHOM DARED TO DARE AN'  THEN DARED SOME MORE.

THOUGH SITTING AMONST A 50X 75 FOOT TWO STORY HOUSE PLUMB BURRIED IN MILITARY ARTIFACTS I WAS SORT OF GREEDY.. I WANTED TO MAKE SOME QUICK CASH ,,,,BUT I INFORMED HER OF THE FACT SHE REQIRED MORE THAN WHAT SHE HAD, ME.... LOL IT SIMPLY REQUIRED A TEAM...

IT WAS LITERALY A FEW, FEW  MILLION DOLLARS AT THE LEAST. AND THAT WAS WITH OUT OPENING ALL THE  BOXES ... JUST THE CAMERACOLLECTION [ HAD TO BE 50 OF THEM] WAS IN MEAN MINT WORKING CONDITION 500.000?

THUS WE SHOWED HER JUST WHAT ONE ROOM WOULD GET ON EBAY. I INFORMED HER I COULD MOVE PRODUCT, NUT THIS REQUIRED LARGE BULK BUYS OR IT WOULD TAKE 5 YEARS... JUST CATALOGING WAS LIKE...I

WELL, A WEEK LATER, SHE BROUGH ME SOME JAPANESE SWORDS AND ABOUT 3000.00 IN GOODSBY. I VCOULD NOT OFFER HER 5 CENTS....SHE KEPT DROPPING THINGS OFF FOR NEAR 6 MONTHS.

ONE OF THE ITEMS WAS A BOX WITH 1000 PHOTOGRAPHS AND 5000 NEGATIVES TO GO WITH THEM.;  OLD NEGATIVES. I HAD WALMART RUN ANOTHER 1000 OF THEM MARKED "PACIFIC".

IT WAS SOON CLEAR SOME WERE THOSE I HAD SEEN ON WIKIPEDIA AS OPEN SOURCE US MILITARY.

BUT, THEMN I NOTED OVER 600 WERE ARMY MARINE AND NAVY PACIFIC AND OTHER THEARTER IMAGES GENUINE TO THIS HISTORY. THROUGH OUT THE PACIFIC PICS THAT WERE,   ESPECIALLY THE TARAWA PICS. WITH  WRITINGS SUPER IMPOSED WITH INK WRININGS ON THE PICS OR ON TAPE THAT WAS APPLIED LIKE:  "THERE IS DAD"  OR " THERE IS MARTY DADS FRIEND" OR "IS THIS MIKE?". OR THEY WERE IN THE ALBUMS THAT SHE DROPPED OFF ON THE LAST TIME SHE VISITED.....

SO, THAT WAS ENOUG TO WET THE BEAK. THUS I WILL BE SURE TO INCLUDE SOME GREAT PICS

ROCK

IMG_7838.JPG (124770 bytes) IMG_5610.JPG (128949 bytes)
IMG_5613.JPG (126513 bytes) IMG_5619.JPG (156067 bytes)
IMG_5620.JPG (197019 bytes) IMG_5608.JPG (174723 bytes)
IMG_5611.JPG (129020 bytes) IMG_5612.JPG (196884 bytes)
IMG_5615.JPG (141414 bytes) IMG_5623.JPG (145442 bytes)

TARAWA
THE MARCH TO THE HOME ISLANDS

AAAA-JAPAN.2.jpg (88943 bytes)

FLAME THROWER
taken by us usmc photographer public domain

Since the December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor attack, the Japanese had successfully gained control of most of the central Pacific strategic islands and had two years to reinforce these critical strategic "zones"; including the Tarawa Atoll. They also built operational airfields or took them over, with command of air fields, the Japanese believed they could maintain control of air and sea surrounding some of the most strategic Islands in the Pacific; thereby holding the Americans at bay long enough to secure materials, oil and other commodities necessary to sustaining the war.

In the USA, after the *6 month Guadalcanal victory. the Joint Chiefs of Staff assigned the code name GALVANIC to a campaign to capture Tarawa, Makin, and Apamama in the Gilberts. The 2d Marine Division was assigned Tarawa and Apamama (a company-sized operation); the Army's 165th Regimental Combat Team of the 27th Infantry Division would take Makin.

Thus the Battle of Tarawa was for the Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islands in the Pacific Theater during World War II. It would be the first American offensive in the critical central Pacific region. Operation Galvanic would consume more than 1,000 U.S. troops killed and 2,000 wounded in it's 72 hours of life.

Collectively, 6,400 Japanese, Koreans, and Americans would die in the fighting.


*The Guadalcanal Campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and code named
Operation Watchtower by Allied forces, was a military campaign fought between
7 August 1942 and 9 February 1943

CEMETERY
taken by us usmc photographer public domain

TRANSPORTS
us usmc/photographer public domain


THE JAPANESE

Betio, 2,400 miles southwest of Pearl Harbor, is the largest island in the Tarawa Atoll. A small, flat island with a southern lagoon and shaped like a long, thin triangle, the tiny island is but two miles long and only 800 yards wide at the widest point and home to the bulk of the Japanese Defenders.

On this narrow island a long pier was constructed from the north shore from which cargo ships could unload in the protection of the lagoon. The northern coast of the island faces into the lagoon, while the southern and western sides face the deep waters of the open ocean.

The Japanese military worked intensely for nearly a year to fortify the Tarawa. 1,247 men of the 111th Pioneers - similar to the U.S. Navy Seabee, another 970 men from a Navy construction Battalion, and 1200 Korean forced laborers, built a system of bombproof shelters made of coconut logs braced with angle irons and roofs 6 feet thick and covered with sand, logs and corrugated iron.

Only heavy-caliber armor-piercing or other delayed-action shells penetrated them. Compartmented, these shelters allowed the defenders protection from grenades and explosives hurled through the openings. Add 500 pillboxes, bunkers and other strong points occupied by some of Japan's most trained and aggressive soldiers, it was in fact a modern fortress.

When a diversionary Makin Island raid in August 1942 was completed, the Japanese were made aware of the vulnerability and strategic significance of the Gilbert Islands. The 6th okosuka Special Naval Landing Force arrived to further reinforce the island in February 1943.

PRISONERS
ONLY 17 JAPANESE WOULD SURVIVE
taken by us usmc/photographer public domain

****************************************************8

All this was combined at Tarawa by the fortification through fire power:

a- hundreds of guns, including a "system" of heavy machine guns behind coconut logs, sand, concrete and armored plate.

b- 14 heavy coastal defense guns; with underground ammunition storage and fire control systems.

c- 25, 37-mm and 75-mm field guns in shelters immune to direct hits from all but the largest guns.

d- Anti-aircraft guns.


Now, remember, though this island was small, it was a literal bee hive of defensive firepower. Various even smaller surrounding the battle site made attacking such a small, tight well defended target seem impossible. It was the first time in the war that the United States faced serious Japanese opposition to an amphibious landing. The 4,500 Japanese defenders were well supplied, prepared, and they fought almost to the last man.

Army LtGen.Robert Richardson would be quoted as saying:

"Tarawa was the most heavily defended atoll that would ever be invaded by Allied forces in the Pacific."

Command for the plans for defense was Rear Admiral Tomanari Sichero, an experienced engineer who directed further construction of the sophisticated defensive structures on Betio.

The 6th Yokosuka became a garrison force, and the unit's identification was changed to the 3rd Special Base Defense Force. The primary goal in the Japanese defensive scheme was to stop the attackers in the water or pin them on the beaches. His ace players, the highly trained, tenacious, fighting spirited Special Naval Landing Forces (U,S.Marines would be surprised at the ferocity of the defenders on Betio).

 

 

INVASION PERSONAL FORCES:

To insure the opportunity for victory the American military would assemble the largest force for a single action to that date. Consisting of 17 aircraft carriers (6 CVs, 5 CVLs, and 6 CVEs), 12 battleships, 8 heavy cruisers, 4 light cruisers, 66 destroyers, and 36 transport ships. On board the transports was the 2nd Marine Division and a part of the Army's 27th Infantry Division, for a total of about 35,000 troops.


The 5th Amphibious Corps under Marine Major General Holland M. "Howlin' Mad" Smith was chosen as Commander of the main landing forces.

The 2nd Marine Division under Major General Julian C. Smith would carry out the landing on Tarawa Atoll, specifically Betio Island, which was selected as the main target because it contained the airfield and the bulk of the Japanese defenses.

 

The 2nd Marine Division .

Prior to Tarawa, the 2nd Marine Division were recuperating from their 6 month campaign on Guadalcanal, They had been withdrawn to New Zealand for rest and recuperation while their losses were replaced. The main reason was that the men were given a chance to recover from the malaria and other illnesses that weakened them through the fighting in the Solomon's.

Army's 27th Infantry Division

Then came part of the U,S. Army's 27th Infantry Division under Major General Ralph C. Smith who would take Makin Atoll, 100 miles north of Tarawa on a line to the Marshals.
and a part of the Army's 27th Infantry Division, for a total of about 35,000 troops.

[CONFUSION? THREE COMMANDERS ALL NAMED SMITH]

SEA WALL OF BODIES
taken by us usmc/photographer public domain

The plan: Land Marines on the North Beaches

The air strip, running roughly east-west, divided the island into north and south.


Divide beaches into three sections:

far west of the island: Red Beach 1
center just west of the pier: Red Beach 2
the east of the pier: Red Beach 3

There was a contingency landing beach called Green Beach on the western shoreline
Green Beach was used for the D+1 landings.
Another two called Black Beaches 1 and 2 made up the southern shore of the island
and were not used.

SUICIDE
taken by us usmc photographer public domain


THE BATTLE
Nov. 20, 1943

As the invasion flotilla began to arrive in the predawn hours of Nov. 20, 1943, the island's four 8 inch guns opened fire. A duel of heavy guns began from the response of the battleships Colorado and Maryland commencing counter-battery fire.

Accurate counter-battery fire delivered 16 inch shells that found their mark, some penetrating the ammunition storage for one of the guns. The huge explosion as the ordnance went up in a massive fireball killed maimed and wounded. Soon 3 of the four guns were knocked out of action.leaving the approach to the lagoon open.

Mean while, because the Japanese communication lines had been laid shallow, they were quickly destroyed in the naval bombardment effectively preventing Commander Keiji Shibazaki any direct control of his troops. To counter this mishap in the mid-afternoon he and his staff decided to abandon the central concrete command post post west of the airfield, and move to the south side of the island in attempt to gain communications. As he was making his move in the open, a 5" naval artillery shell exploded in his midst. Commander Keiji Shibazaki and most of his headquarters personnel and staff were killed.


An air attack followed and then a huge naval bombardment was sustained for the next three hours.

Mine sweepers escorted by destroyers providing cover fire entered the lagoon and cleared the shallows of mines.

A guide light from one of the sweepers began guiding the landing craft into the lagoon.

The Marines landed on Betio's northwest shore and started their attack from the lagoon. By noon the Marines had successfully taken the beach to the first line of Japanese defenses. Though there were some break-throughs, the force was still at the first line of defenses.

Tanks began to offload and appear on the beaches and by nightfall the line was a short distance from the main runway about half-way across the island.

Marines held a thin line and knew as they battled that the next day the forces on Red Beach 2 and 3 would push inward and attempt to divide the Japanese defenders into two sections, while expanding the bulge near the airfield until it reached the southern shore.

Those forces on Red 1 were directed to secure Green beach for the landing of reinforcements. Green beach made up the entire western end of the island.

On Nov. 21

The 1st Battalion, 8th Marines, fight their way in to reinforce the beachhead. 6,500 Marines had been landed at Betio by the end of the first day with 1500 killed or wounded.

While this is occurring, US Navy Intelligence ***intercepts the Japanese defenders of Betio sending a final, desperate message that included the facts that "their weapons had been destroyed, and they were attempting "a final charge".

[**the us had cracked the Japanese code long before and pretty much knew every major Japanese move before it occurred. the battles of Midway Coral Sea and the Solomon's all benefited with advantage knowledge]

A Japanese submarine sinks the Liscome Bay, One of the 17 supporting aircraft carriers, She went down with 687 of her personal more than 30% of the total loss of life on the American side attributed to the Battle of Tarawa.



LAST DAY
taken by us usmc photographer public domain

IMAGINE 20,000 MEN DUELING ON THIS SPEC OF HELL

***********************************************************

On Nov 22

Thus, on the night of the 22, when the Japanese began a bonsai effort with no holds barred, screaming "death rather than surrender", the men defending their landings were ready...

Though small units were sent to infiltrate the U.S. lines in preparation for a full-scale assault. The assembling forces were broken up by concentrated artillery fire, and the assault never took place.

Another attempt was made at 23:00 and met with some success. App 300 Japanese troops launched a banzai charge into the lines of A and B Companies. Receiving support from 1/10's 75mm pack howitzers and the destroyers USS Schroeder and USS Sigsbee


VICTORY
taken by us usmc photographer public domain

, the Marines were able to beat back the attack but only after calling artillery to within 75 meters of their lines.

US forces would beat the charges back and moved steadily forward as he Japanese-held portion of Betio diminished radically.

On the morning dawn of November 23, 3rd Battalion 6th Marines was storming the eastern end of the island when dawn's early light revealed heaps of tangled mounds, remnants of of the previous nights Bonzai attacks to the exhausted Marines and GI's.

All but 17 Japanese soldiers defending Betio had survived.


Seventy-six hours after the invasion began, Betio was finally declared secure.


For the next several days the 2nd Battalion 6th Marines cleared the area of any hiding Japanese.


On November 28. The 2nd Marine Division started shipping out soon after and were completely withdrawn by early 1944.

 

OVER 6000 DIED ON THIS ATOLL IN THREE DAYS
taken by us usmc photographer public domain

 

Of 3,636 Japanese in the garrison, one officer and sixteen enlisted men surrendered.

Of the 1,200 Korean laborers brought to Tarawa to construct defenses, 129 survived.

4,690 island's defenders were killed.

2nd Marine Division killed in action 894
48 officers / 846 enlisted
Survived died of Major Wounds 84
8 officers / 76 enlisted men
wounded survived 2,188
102 officers / 2,086 enlisted

12,000 2nd Marine Division Marines Tarawa
3,166 officers and men became casualty

Heavy casualties spark public protest. Headline reports of the high losses could not be understood for such a small and seemingly unimportant island.
Public reaction further aggravated by the unguardedly frank comments of General H.M. Smith
General Holland M. Smith, commander of the V Amphibious Corps, touring the beaches after the battle
"likened the losses to Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg"

**********************************************************************

THE BATTLE
IF YOU WANT THE SHORT

Tarawa is an atoll located about 2,400 miles southwest of Pearl Harbor in the central Pacific Ocean. Tarawa was the previous capital of the former British colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. The Battle of Tarawa, code named Operation Galvanic, was largely fought from November 20 to November 23, 1943 and was the first American offensive in the critical central Pacific region.  The Japanese worked intensely for nearly a year to fortify the island. and nearly 6.000 Japanese and Americans losses were suffered within the space of 76 hours.

 

File:Flamethrower in Tarawa jungle.jpg

The Battle of Tarawa, fought from November 20 to November 23, 1943, was code named Operation Galvanic and was the first critical central Pacific offensive battles of World War II were the United States faced serious Japanese opposition to an amphibious landing. 4,500 well-supplied and prepared Japanese defenders would fiught almost to the last man exacting a heavy toll on the United States 2nd Marine Division. Within the space of 76 hours, nearly 6,000 Japanese and Americans would die on this tiny island..

File:Marine in action at Tarawa.JPEG

In the aftermath of the battle, American casualties lined the beach and floated in the surf. Marine cameramen were present to obtain footage that would later be used in the documentary "With the Marines at Tarawa". The footage  contained so many gruesome disturbing scenes of the American dead that the decision to release it to the public was deferred to the President [Roosevelt].

File:Hawkins Field Betio Tarawa March 1944.jpg

The lessons learned at Tarawa would be applied to all subsequent amphibious assaults as the United States worked its way across the Central Pacific. Following the battle the 2nd Marine Division was shipped to Hawaii, leaving the 2nd Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment behind to clear the battlefield of ordnance, provide security for the Seabees rebuilding the airstrip and aid in the burial detail. The 2nd Marine Division would remain in Hawaii for six months, refitting and training, until called upon for its next major amphibious landing, the Battle of Saipan in the Marianas in June 1944.

IMG_0766.JPG (230468 bytes)

Of the 4,707 island defenders, only one officer and sixteen enlisted men surrendered. Only 129 of the 1,200 Korean laborers brought to Tarawa by the Japanese to construct the defenses survived.. The 2nd Marine Division suffered 894 killed in action; this included 48 officers. 84 wounded survivors also succumbed to their wounds, including 8 officers. 2,188 men (including 102 officers) were wounded in the battle. Of the 12,000 2nd Marine Division marines on Tarawa, 3,166 became casualties in the first 76 hours.