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Vietnam Military WATCH Issue

 NOTE: THE ONLY DIVE WATCH US MIL CONTRACTS WERE THE CANTEEN AND THE TORNEK. IF SOME ONE CAN PINT ANOTHER I WOULD BE HAPPY TO KNOW. FROM ROLEX TO SEA WOLF, MANY DIVES WERE UTILIZED BY NAVY DIVERS UDT ETC,  HELIO AND JET PILOTS ALSO UTILIZED MANY DIFFERENT WATCHES, BUT ONLY MIL SPEC WATCHES FROM[…]

ROCKS CURRENT OFFERS

  MENU AT BOTTOM CLICK ABOVE [rocks shop] CHECK OUT THE OFFERS ON TWO EBAY SHOPS SEE SOMETHING YOU LIKE? THEN SEND ROCK A TICKET IF YOU ARE A MEMBER YOU WILL RECEIVE A DISCOUNT [jas shop] CLICK BELOW  _______________ FOR DISCOUNTS OF 20% TO 40% IN REAL DOLLARS ON PRODUCTS, JEWELRY, WATCHES AND SERVICES,[…]

FREE ID AND WATCH CHECK

    THIS IS YOUR COMMUNITY! THOUGH GSW/MWB OPERATES AN AWESOME BRICK AND MORTAR STUDIO & GALLERY & 5 WEBSITES ON A DEDICATED SERVER WITH OVER 30,000 PICTURES OF RESTORATIONS, AND HAVE OFFERED OUR SERVICES SINCE 1989 [JOINED THE INTERNET 1992], WE NOT ONLY SELL WE ALSO INVEST IN DOZENS WATCHES FROM FELLOW WATCH SELLERS.[…]

Dial Restoration Is Costly Yet Necessary

TO RESTORE OR NOT RESTORE VINTAGE WATCH DIALS I like to say I am not a watchmaker .. rather a hacking master restoration expert restoring history. With over 35000 pictures, 1.2 mil Google requests every 15 days,+near 10,000 articles online. i am obsessive LOL. Thus I call upon only the best of the best. When[…]

CHRONOGRAPH A RETOUR GEISMAR JAPANESE WWII WATCHES

    GEISMAR JAPANESE WWII WATCHES   ROCK’S PARADISE   VINTAGE & MILITARY WATCHES & FINE JEWELRY   KM & PANZER PARA JAPANESE WWII NAVY SEIKOSHA SUB TIMER RCAF WWII TRENCH TRENCH WYLER GERMAN WWII WWII HELBROS 24HR JAPANESE WWII CHRONO SEIKOSHA CHRONO WWII NAVY SUB TIMER WWII SEIKOSHA JULY 24 2003 WWII-IMPERIAL-JAPAN-SEIKOSHA-SEIKO-LUME-DIAL-MILITARY-WATCH JULY 24[…]

JEWELRY PICTURES MILITARY LADIES EBAY OFFERS

  MENU AT BOTTOM CLICK ABOVE [rocks shop] CHECK OUT THE OFFERS ON TWO EBAY SHOPS SEE SOMETHING YOU LIKE? THEN SEND ROCK A TICKET IF YOU ARE A MEMBER YOU WILL RECEIVE A DISCOUNT [jas shop] CLICK BELOW _______________ FOR DISCOUNTS OF 20% TO 40% IN REAL DOLLARS ON PRODUCTS, JEWELRY, WATCHES AND SERVICES,[…]

EIGENTUM DER FLIEGERTRUPPEN ALPINA INVESTED BY ALPINA

      GSW PO BOX 2301 SUWANEE, GA, USA 30024 goldsmithworks.com 770.831.1257 – 1.800.438.6894 HTTP://FREE.TICKETS.COM Date/Report Number …..120811.LWW Item:  EIGENTUM DER FLIEGERTRUPPEN ALPINA               PURCHASED BY THE ALPINA COMPANY   ALPINA ca. 1915: 182597 WITH MILITARY BLACK DIAL SIGNED EIGENTUM DER FLIEGERTRUPPEN ALPINA WITH 60 MINUTE OUTER TRACK BORDER WHITE[…]

11TH-AIR-BORNE-WWII-VIETNAM

THE ANGELS 11TH AIRBORNE DIVISION WWII 11TH PACIFIC THEATER VIETNAM MID-EAST   GO AND VIEW 300 PHOTOS OF THE 11TH IN WWII THE BEST  MILITARY-WATCH-BOX™ ASSEMBLED     REPRESENTING THE VERY AIRBORNE TROOPERS WHOSE ACTIONS PAVED THE ROAD FOR MANY BANDS OF BROTHERS TO EXIST ***************************************************************** THESE AIRBORNE TROOPERS LIKE A BAND OF FOREST GUMPS[…]

AWESOME-WWII-RESTORATIONS

*********************** NEW MAR 7TH 2013   WE WILL BE POSTING ANOTHER HALD DOZEN OR SO MORE OF DAVID’S INCREDIBLE COLLECTION SENT FOR RESTORATION       NEW JAN 18TH 2013 THESE WERE SHIPPED END OF DECEMBER ROCK IS NOW RESTORING/SERVICING THIS COLLECTION THE FOLLOWING WATCHES ARE FROM ONE PATRON’S [DAVID] COLLECTION WILL UPDATE AS EACH[…]

APPRAISING

BASIC FACTS ABOUT JEWELRY APPRAISAL & INSURANCE REPLACEMENT VALUE APPRAISAL APPRAISAL TO SELL YOUR JEWELRY JEWELRY INSURANCE & CARE INSURANCE COMPANIES REPLACEMENT VALUE APPRAISAL A REPLACEMENT APPRAISAL IS WRITTEN TO COVER THE EXACT AMOUNT THAT YOU PAID FOR THE ITEM. THIS IS NOT AN INFLATED VALUE OF YOUR JEWELRY. THIS ALLOWS FOR AN EXACT PRICE[…]

ROLEX

       

A-WATCH HOW IT OPERATES IN VIDEO

  GOLDSMITHWORKS PO BOX 2301 SUWANEE, GA, USA, 30024 +1.770.831.1257  – 1.800.438.6894 Watch For Sale Need Help ID Value? 35000 WATCH  IMAGES 25000 PAGES ONLINE 24/7 GOLDSMITHWATCHWORKS.COM GOLDSMITHWORKS.COM     MILITARYWATCHBOX.COM LSYF.COM TIMEFRAUD.COM          GOLDSMITHTRAINING.COM  1947 – 1949 WHAT MAKES A FINE WATCH FINE [this video tajke you into the most fabulous era of watch making[…]

OFFERS

OFFERS JUST SAY NO TO EBAY  shop.lsyf.com shop.timefraud.com shop.goldsmithworks.com shop.goldsmithtraining.com shop.militarywatchbox.com shop.goldsmithwatchworks.com shop.vintagetimeremadeinamerica.com watch-and-box-sales   [auction-nudge tool=”listings”]

WORKS

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goldsmithworks and rock restoring seiko dive watch

WHOM DO YOU WANT TO RESTORE YOUR SEIKO WATCHES 1890 T0 1990 ,, Seiko is one of a few rare companies that made everything for their watches. From Cases, Dials, Movements and Tools, TO Oils, Grease, Repair Equipment, Straps, Bands, Bracelets, Crowns, everything was designed, created manufactured in house. SOME PARTS WERE PROBABLY IMPORTED SEIKO[…]

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1940 WWII KOREA VIETNAM WYLER FLOATING BEZEL AIRMAN WATCH

  GOLDSMITHWORKS IN BIZ FOR 30 YEARS ONLINE SINCE 1992 WATCH SALES  REPAIRS RESTORATIONS APPRAISALS TAKE A LOOK AT OUR ONLINE PICTURES 45000 PICTURES IN 452 ALBUMS GOOGLE PICTURE SITE ***************************************** WYLER WYLER-101SR-29MM WWII 11TH AIRBORNE DEPLETED RADIUM DIAL MILITARY INCAFLEX JUMP WATCH 29.3 MM W/O CROWN WITH FREE PROFESSIONAL ONLINE APPRAISAL WITH ALL PICTURES[…]

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WWII 1941 MILITARY DIALED MIDO MULTIFORT BUMPER

*************************************************** RE-ILLUMINATED WITH AF-Luminova ***************************** READY TO WEAR RESTORED & OVERHAULED 1941 WWII MILITARY DIALED MIDO MULTIFORT SUPERAUTOMATIC WITH 17J MIDO 817 BUMPER AND ALL STAINLESS STEEL CASE WITH STAINLESS STEEL WWII SPRING BAND WITH FREE PROFESSIONAL ONLINE APPRAISAL WITH HISTORY AND ASSOCIATED INFORMATION OUTLINED BELOW AND FREE ONE YEAR GSW LIMITED WARRANTY WITH 19.00[…]

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WWII HELIOS 24HR SWEEPS

  RE-ILLUMINATED WITH AF-Luminova ***************************** READY TO WEAR RESTORED & OVERHAULED WWII ERA WITH HACKED SWEEP SECONDS REAPPEARED DURING VIETNAM ERA HELIOS MILITARY DIALED 17J WITH FREE PROFESSIONAL ONLINE APPRAISAL WITH HISTORY AND ASSOCIATED INFORMATION OUTLINED BELOW AND FREE ONE YEAR GSW LIMITED WARRANTY WITH 19.00 US SUBSIDIZED DOUBLE BOXED INSURED WITH SIGNATURE DELIVERY! 26.00[…]

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1968 PX BX RR VIETNAM ERA WYLER MILITARY STYLE DIVE WATCH

  GSW  PICASA WATCH GALLERY GSWW WATCHES *************************************************** READY TO WEAR VINTAGE RESTORED & OVERHAULED EXCELLENT  CONDITION 1968 PX/BX-R&R VIETNAM ERA WYLER MILITARY STYLE DIVE WATCH WITH BALLISTIC NYLON OLIVE DRAB G-18 MILITARY STRAP WITH KEEPERS FITS 6 TO 9 *******************************************  YOU ALSO RECEIVE FREE A ONE YEAR GSW LIMITED WARRANTY FREE APPRAISAL WITH INFO TO[…]

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german wwii military watches

GERMAN-MILITARY-WATCHES.pdf THE QUESTIONS THAT FACE BOTH BUYER AND SELLER OF VINTAGE WWII GERMAN MILITARY WATCHES IS THEIR AUTHENTICATION. I MUST SAY, IF YOU INVEST IN A WATCH THAT IS BLACK DIALED, HAS OLD DEAD RADIUM ILLUMINATED NUMBERS AND HANDS, A SUB SECONDS REGISTER ABOVE THE 6 POSITION, HAS A STEEL OR CHROME CASE WITH WIRED[…]

HISTORIC WEEMS LONGINES BEST

[auction-nudge tool=”listings”] GOLDSMITHWORKS HAS BEEN ONLINE TRADING & RESTORING WATCHES SINCE 1992 SINCE JOINING EBAY TEN YEARS AGO WE- HAVE POSTED OVER 150,000 PERMANENT  IMAGES PLUS HISTORIES OF ALL OF OUR RESTORATIONS PICASA -PHOTO BUCKET -GOOGLE   WE MAINTAIN 13 WEBSITES PROVIDING OUR PATRONS WITH FREE DETAILED   INFORMATION, HISTORY/CLEAR PICS ON WATCHES RESTORED THE LAST[…]

DOES THE CASE HAVE TO BE CUSHION NO THE PERSHING

BEFORE A FORUM DODO BIRD SWEEPS IN TO “HELP” BY INFORMING US  IT AIN’T SO…. ALLOW ME TO INFORM YOU OF THE HISTORY OF THE 48 STAR AMERICAN SHEILD W/EAGLE AND PORCELAINE DIAL.   AN ELGIN POCKET WATCH -WITH PERSHING DIAL-   AFTER RESTORING OVER 200 PERSHING DIALED WATCHES, WE CONCLUDED THAT, THOUGH ELGIN PRODUCED[…]

WWII NAZI LUFTWAFFE HACKING SWEEP SECONDS ALPINA

THE RAREST WWII GERMAN WATCH A SMALL RUN OF THESE POCKET WATCHES WERE MADE IN GERMANY BY ALPINA   HONORING   HITLER.–\FEW SURVIVED  FEWER STILL ACTUALLR RUN DUE TO PARTS THIS ALPINA WAS/IS NOT SIMPLY A FASHION OR HONOR WATCH THE FACT THIS ALPINA HAS A MILITARY  HACKED SWEEP SECONDS HAND AND THIS RARE MILITARY GRADE[…]

WALTHAM GENUINE TRENCH

WALTHAM GENUINE TRENCH MILITARY ILLUMINATED 24HR VERSION WITH CRYSTAL GUARD RED 12, RED 24HR CHAPTER ORIGINAL HANDS INCLUDING FITTING  TAILED SUB SECONDS HAND OUTLINED  ILLUMINATED RAILROAD NUMERALS LIKE KITCHENER MILITARY STRAPS ONE TONGUE IS LONGER THE ONE THAT IS TO RIGHT/ABOVE WHEN WEARING ON LEFT ARM, THIS ALLOWED THE SOLDIER TO PLACE OVER CUFF, JACKET[…]

VIETNAM ERA RED CROSS HELIOS CUFF STLE

FACT. GOLDSMITHWORKS HAS BEEN ONLINE TRADING & RESTORING WATCHES SINCE 1992 SINCE JOINING EBAY TEN YEARS AGO, WE HAVE OFFERED OUR VINTAGE TIME EXCLUSIVELY ONLINE WITH EB WE HAVE ALSO POSTED OVER 150,000 IMAGES OF OUR RESTORATIONS PICASA -PHOTO BUCKET -GOOGLE FREE WARRANTY AND APPRAISAL VERIFYING THE AUTHENTICITY OF OUR TIME PIECES 13 WEBSITES PROVIDING[…]

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CASA BLANCA BUCHERER FREE FRENCH NURSE

   CASA BLANCA BUCHERER FREE FRENCH NURSE AVAILABLE ON ETSY WITH FREE SHIPPING TODAY WORLD WIDE   CASA BLANCA BUCHERER FREE FRENCH NURSE THIS PIECE IS READY TO WEAR EVERY DAY TIME PIECE NOTE. CASABLANCA THE MOVIE I RECENTLY WATCHED THE MOVIE AND HIJACKED SOME FRAMES. WOW, PLUM FULL OF FREE FRENCH MATERIAL. IMPORTANT THEME[…]

German_WWII

GERMAN-MILITARY-WATCHES.pdf   GERMAN WWII ARMY SWEEP SECONDS INTELLIGENCE WATCH **************************************** BELOW IS PHOTO OF GENUINE DI-H ABOVE WAS POSTED ONLINE AS IS *************************************** I HAVE HAD ONLY TWO OF THESE IN 20 YEARS THE GERMAN MILITARY PROPERTY MARK”DI SERIAL H” WAS UTILIZED FOR THE ARMY INTELLIGENCE SERVICE MORE GERMAN WWII WATCH HISTORY BELOW ALL WATCHES[…]

military_issue_watch_or_not_1

  <WE HAVE HAD ONLY 3 NEGATIVE & 2 NEUTRAL FEED BACKS IN 10 YEARS WITH 2500 TRANSACTIONS!!!!!!!! AND NO NEGATIVE/NEUTRAL FOR THE 8000 PRIVATE TRANSACTIONS < CHECK THIS FEED BACK!!!! TELL ME WHAT STORE EVER HAD THAT TYPE OF RECORD WHILE SELLING USED WATCHES OR USED CARS OR ANYTHING USED, OLD AND MECHANICAL–REGARDLESS OF[…]

military_issue_watch_or_not_2

    FACTS CONCERNING MILITARY VS PRIVATE WWI THROUGH VIETNAM http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_1/ ACTUAL DIRECT WWII WATCHES RESTORED BY ROCK/GSW http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_2/ ACTUAL WWI/WWII JAPAN/GERMAN/SWISS WATCHES RESTORED BY ROCK/GSW http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_3/ ACTUAL WWII/VIETNAM/SWISS/US/RESTORED BY ROCK/GSW http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_4/   ALL TIME PIECES RESTORED BY GOLDSMITHWORKS all watches restored by GOLDSMITHWORKS  GOLDSMITHWORKS USED TO INVEST IN 60 TO 70% OF OUR BASE[…]

military_issue_watch_or_not_4

      FACTS CONCERNING MILITARY VS PRIVATE WWI THROUGH VIETNAM http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_1/ ACTUAL DIRECT WWII WATCHES RESTORED BY ROCK/GSW http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_2/ WWI/WWII JAPAN/GERMAN/SWISS WATCHES  BY ROCK/GSW http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_3/ ACTUAL WWII/VIETNAM/SWISS/US/RESTORED BY ROCK/GSW http://goldsmithwatchworks.com/military_issue_watch_or_not_4/   MARCH 01,2015 CLICK BELOW FOR DAVID’S VINTAGE RESTORED DIRECT TO PUBLIC/SOLDIER MILITARY WATCHES NOT ALL OF THESE ARE MILITARY, BUT THE MAJORITY ARE[…]

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OnePatronFiftyWWII-Restorations

      OCT 30TH 2014   MARCH 01,2015 CLICK BELOW FOR DAVID’S VINTAGE RESTORED MILITARY WATCHES PDF! ROCK IS NOW RESTORING/SERVICING THIS COLLECTION THE FOLLOWING WATCHES ARE FROM ONE PATRON’S [DAVID] COLLECTION WILL UPDATE AS EACH TIME PIECE OF THIS INCREDIBLE EDUCATION PDF STORED POCKET TRENCH CONVERSIONS VIETNAM US GOV ISSUE WATCHES GERMAN SUBMARINE[…]

KOREAN WAR

 

 

 

 

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AMERICAN KOREAN WAR

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The Korean War (25 June 1950 – armistice signed 27 July 1953 [28]) was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People’s Republic of China (PRC), with military material aid from the Soviet Union. The war was a result of the physical division of Korea by an agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War at the end of World War II.

The Korean peninsula was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the end of World War II. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, American administrators divided the peninsula along the 38th Parallel, with United States troops occupying the southern part and Soviet troops occupying the northern part.[29]

The failure to hold free elections throughout the Korean Peninsula in 1948 deepened the division between the two sides, and the North established a Communist government. The 38th Parallel increasingly became a political border between the two Koreas. Although reunification negotiations continued in the months preceding the war, tension intensified. Cross-border skirmishes and raids at the 38th Parallel persisted. The situation escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces invaded South Korea on 25 June 1950.[30] It was the first significant armed conflict of the Cold War.[31]

The United Nations, particularly the United States, came to the aid of South Korea in repelling the invasion, but within two months the defenders were pushed back to the Pusan perimeter, a small area in the south of the country, before the North Koreans were stopped. A rapid UN counter-offensive then drove the North Koreans past the 38th Parallel and almost to the Yalu River, and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) entered the war on the side of the North.[30] The Chinese launched a counter-offensive that pushed the United Nations forces back across the 38th Parallel. The Soviet Union materially aided the North Korean and Chinese armies. In 1953, the war ceased with an armistice that restored the border between the Koreas near the 38th Parallel and created the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), a 2.5-mile (4.0 km) wide buffer zone between the two Koreas. Minor outbreaks of fighting continue to the present day.

With both North and South Korea sponsored by external powers, the Korean War was a proxy war. From a military science perspective, it combined strategies and tactics of World War I and World War II: it began with a mobile campaign of swift infantry attacks followed by air bombing raids, but became a static trench war by July 1951.

In the United States, the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a “police action” as it was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.[32] Colloquially, it has been referred to in the United States as The Forgotten War or The Unknown War. The issues concerned were much less clear than in previous and subsequent conflicts, such as World War II and the Vietnam War.[33][34] To a significant degree, the war has been “historically overshadowed by World War II and Vietnam”.[35]

In South Korea the war is usually referred to as “625” or the 6–2–5 War (yug-i-o jeonjaeng), reflecting the date of its commencement on 25 June.[citation needed] In North Korea the war is officially referred to as the Fatherland Liberation War (Choguk haebang chonjaeng). Alternatively, it is called the Choson chonjaeng (“Choson war”, Choson being what North Koreans call Korea).[36] In the People’s Republic of China the war is called the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea (traditional Chinese: ??????; simplified Chinese: ??????; pinyin: Kàngmeiyuáncháo zhànzheng).[37][38] The “Korean War” (????/????; pinyin: Cháoxian zhànzheng) is more commonly used today. Chao Xian is a general term for Korea.
Japanese rule (1910–1945)
Main article: Korea under Japanese rule

Upon defeating the Qing Dynasty in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–96), the Empire of Japan occupied the Korean Empire – a peninsula strategic to its sphere of influence.[39] A decade later, defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05), Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905, then annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910.[40][41]

Korean nationalists and the intelligentsia fled the country, and some founded the Provisional Korean Government in 1919, which was headed by Syngman Rhee in Shanghai. This government-in-exile was recognized by few countries. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led and were the primary agents of internal and external warfare against the Japanese.[39]:23[42]

Korea under Japanese rule was considered to be part of the Empire of Japan as an industrialized colony along with Taiwan, and both were part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. In 1937, the colonial Governor–General, General Jiro Minami, commanded the attempted cultural assimilation of Korea’s 23.5 million people by banning the use and study of Korean language, literature, and culture, to be replaced with that of mandatory use and study of their Japanese counterparts. Starting in 1939, the populace was required to use Japanese names under the Soshi-kaimei policy. In 1938, the Colonial Government established labor conscription.[citation needed]

In China, the National Revolutionary Army and the Communist People’s Liberation Army helped organize refugee Korean patriots and independence fighters against the Japanese military, which had also occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign (December 1941 – August 1945). The Communists, led by Kim Il-sung, fought the Japanese in Korea and Manchuria.[citation needed]

During World War II, the Japanese used Korea’s food, livestock, and metals for their war effort. Japanese forces in Korea increased from 46,000 soldiers in 1941 to 300,000 in 1945. Japanese Korea conscripted 2.6 million forced laborers controlled with a collaborationist Korean police force; some 723,000 people were sent to work in the overseas empire and in metropolitan Japan. By 1942, Korean men were being conscripted into the Imperial Japanese Army. By January 1945, Koreans comprised 32% of Japan’s labor force. In August 1945, when the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, around 25% of those killed were Koreans.[42] At the end of the war, other world powers did not recognize Japanese rule in Korea and Taiwan.

Meanwhile, at the Cairo Conference (November 1943), Nationalist China, the United Kingdom, and the United States decided “in due course Korea shall become free and independent”.[43] Later, the Yalta Conference (February 1945) granted to the Soviet Union European “buffer zones”—satellite states accountable to Moscow—as well as an expected Soviet pre-eminence in China and Manchuria,[44] in return for joining the Allied Pacific War effort against Japan.[44]
Soviet invasion of Manchuria (1945)
Main article: Soviet invasion of Manchuria (1945)

Toward the end of World War II, as per a US-Soviet agreement, the USSR declared war against Japan on 9 August 1945.[42][45] By 10 August, the Red Army occupied the northern part of the Korean peninsula as agreed, and on 26 August halted at the 38th parallel for three weeks to await the arrival of US forces in the south.[39]:25[39]:24

On 10 August 1945, with the 15 August Japanese surrender near, the Americans doubted whether the Soviets would honor their part of the Joint Commission, the US-sponsored Korean occupation agreement. A month earlier, Colonel Dean Rusk and Colonel Charles H. Bonesteel III divided the Korean peninsula at the 38th parallel after hurriedly deciding (in thirty minutes) that the US Korean Zone of Occupation had to have a minimum of two ports.[46][47][48][49][50]

Explaining why the occupation zone demarcation was positioned at the 38th parallel, Rusk observed, “even though it was further north than could be realistically reached by US forces, in the event of Soviet disagreement … we felt it important to include the capital of Korea in the area of responsibility of American troops”, especially when “faced with the scarcity of US forces immediately available, and time and space factors, which would make it difficult to reach very far north, before Soviet troops could enter the area.”[44] The Soviets agreed to the US occupation zone demarcation to improve their negotiating position regarding the occupation zones in Eastern Europe, and because each would accept Japanese surrender where they stood.[39]:25
Chinese Civil War (1945–1949)
Main article: Chinese Civil War

After the end of Second Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese Civil War resumed between the Chinese Communists and the Chinese Nationalists. While the Communists were struggling for supremacy in Manchuria, they were supported by the North Korean government with materiel and manpower.[51] According to Chinese sources, the North Koreans donated 2,000 railway cars worth of material while thousands of Korean “volunteers” served in the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) during the war.[52] North Korea also provided the Chinese Communists in Manchuria with a safe refuge for non-combatants and communications with the rest of China.[51]

The North Korean contributions to the Chinese Communist victory were not forgotten after the creation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. As a token of gratitude, between 50,000 to 70,000 Korean veterans that served in the PLA were sent back along with their weapons, and they would later play a significant role in the initial invasion of South Korea.[51] China promised to support the North Koreans in the event of a war against South Korea.[53] The Chinese support created a deep division between the Korean Communists, and Kim Il-Sung’s authority within the Communist party was challenged by the Chinese faction led by Pak Il-yu, who was later purged by Kim.[54]

After the formation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese government named the Western nations, led by the United States, as the biggest threat to its national security.[55] Basing this judgment on China’s century of humiliation beginning in the early 19th century,[56] American support for the Nationalists during the Chinese Civil War,[57] and the ideological struggles between revolutionaries and reactionaries,[58] the Chinese leadership believed that China would become a critical battleground in the United States’ crusade against Communism.[59] As a countermeasure and to elevate China’s standing among the worldwide Communist movements, the Chinese leadership adopted a foreign policy that actively promoted Communist revolutions throughout territories on China’s periphery.[60]
Korea divided (1945–1949)
See also: Division of Korea

At the Potsdam Conference (July–August 1945), the Allies unilaterally decided to divide Korea—without consulting the Koreans—in contradiction of the Cairo Conference.[39]:24[47]:24–5[61]:25[62]

On 8 September 1945, Lt. Gen. John R. Hodge of the United States arrived in Incheon to accept the Japanese surrender south of the 38th parallel.[47] Appointed as military governor, General Hodge directly controlled South Korea via the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK 1945–48).[63]:63 He established control by restoring to power the key Japanese colonial administrators and their Korean police collaborators.[31] The USAMGIK refused to recognise the provisional government of the short-lived People’s Republic of Korea (PRK) because he suspected it was communist. These policies, voiding popular Korean sovereignty, provoked civil insurrections and guerrilla warfare.[40] On 3 September 1945, Lieutenant General Yoshio Kozuki, Commander, Japanese Seventeenth Area Army, contacted Hodge, telling him that the Soviets were south of the 38th parallel at Kaesong. Hodge trusted the accuracy of the Japanese Army report.[47]

In December 1945, Korea was administered by a US–USSR Joint Commission, as agreed at the Moscow Conference (1945). The Koreans were excluded from the talks. The commission decided the country would become independent after a five-year trusteeship action facilitated by each régime sharing its sponsor’s ideology.[39]:25–6[64] The Korean populace revolted; in the south, some protested, and some rose in arms;[40] to contain them, the USAMGIK banned strikes on 8 December 1945 and outlawed the PRK Revolutionary Government and the PRK People’s Committees on 12 December 1945.

On 23 September 1946 an 8,000-strong railroad worker strike began in Pusan. Civil disorder spread throughout the country in what became known as the Autumn uprising. On 1 October 1946, Korean police killed three students in the Daegu Uprising; protesters counter-attacked, killing 38 policemen. On 3 October, some 10,000 people attacked the Yeongcheon police station, killing three policemen and injuring some 40 more; elsewhere, some 20 landlords and pro-Japanese South Korean officials were killed.[65] The USAMGIK declared martial law.

The right-wing Representative Democratic Council, led by nationalist Syngman Rhee, opposed the Soviet–American trusteeship of Korea, arguing that after 35 years (1910–45) of Japanese colonial rule most Koreans opposed another foreign occupation. The USAMGIK decided to forego the five year trusteeship agreed upon in Moscow, given the 31 March 1948 United Nations election deadline to achieve an anti-communist civil government in the US Korean Zone of Occupation.

On 3 April what began as a demonstration commemorating Korean resistance to Japanese rule ended with the Jeju massacre of as many as 60,000 citizens by South Korean soldiers.[66]

On 10 May, South Korea convoked their first national general elections that the Soviets first opposed, then boycotted, insisting that the US honor the trusteeship agreed to at the Moscow Conference.[39]:26[67][68][69]

North Korea held parliamentary elections three months later on 25 August 1948.[70]

The resultant anti-communist South Korean government promulgated a national political constitution on 17 July 1948, elected a president, the American-educated strongman Syngman Rhee on 20 July 1948. The elections were marred by terrorism and sabotage resulting in 600 deaths.[71] The Republic of Korea (South Korea) was established on 15 August 1948.[72] In the Russian Korean Zone of Occupation, the USSR established a Communist North Korean government[39]:26 led by Kim Il-sung.[73] President Rhee’s régime expelled communists and leftists from southern national politics. Disenfranchised, they headed for the hills, to prepare for guerrilla war against the US-sponsored ROK Government.[73]

As nationalists, both Syngman Rhee and Kim Il-Sung were intent upon reunifying Korea under their own political system.[39]:27 With Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong fighting over the control of the Korean Peninsula,[74] the North Koreans gained support from both the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. They escalated the continual border skirmishes and raids and then prepared to invade. South Korea, with limited matériel, could not match them.[39]:27 During this era, at the beginning of the Cold War, the US government assumed that all communis

Regardless of nationality, were controlled or directly influenced by Moscow; thus the US portrayed the civil war in Korea as a Soviet hegemonic maneuver.[75]

In October 1948, South Korean left-wing soldiers rebelled against the government’s harsh clampdown in April on Jeju island in the Yeosu-Suncheon Rebellion.[76]

The Soviet Union withdrew as agreed from Korea in 1948. U.S. troops withdrew from Korea in 1949, leaving the South Korean army relatively ill-equipped. On 24 December 1949, South Korean forces killed 86 to 88 people in the Mungyeong massacre and blamed the crime on communist marauding bands.[77]

The conflict begins (June 1950)
Territory often changed hands early in the war, until the front stabilized.

In April 1950 Kim Il-sung travelled to Moscow and secured Stalin’s support for a policy to unify Korea under his authority. Although agreeing with the invasion of South Korea in principle, Stalin refused to become directly involved in Kim’s plans, and advised Kim to enlist Chinese support instead. In May 1950 Kim visited Beijing, and succeeded in gaining Mao’s endorsement. At the time, Mao’s support for Kim was largely political (he was contemplating the invasions of Taiwan and Tibet), and was unaware of Kim’s precise intentions or the timing of Kim’s attack. When the Korean war broke out, the Chinese were in the process of demobilizing half of the PLA’s 5.6 million soldiers.[78]

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